Hilary's Foundations of Education

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Hilary's Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Hilary's Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative

1.1.1. The conservative perspective in education is the belief that "human progress is dependent on drive individual initiative drive." (Sadovnik,2013, pg. 23)

1.1.2. Conservative perspective believes in free market and capitalism. This means that we have a competitive market for the most beneficial economy.

1.1.3. Conservatives believe that individuals should take responsibility for their own actions, you either become a valued member of society or you do not. Nothing is free, you have to work .

1.2. Traditional

1.2.1. Schools are neccesary to help students learn about working hard, family unity and individual initiative.

1.2.2. School is an essential stepping stone to becoming a useful member of society.

1.2.3. School helps stabilize the economy.

2. Sociological Perspectives

2.1. Schools use socialization to reproduce the existing society.

2.1.1. Gender Definitions

2.1.2. Curricular placements

2.1.3. Social position

2.2. The effects of socialization on students.

2.2.1. Academically oriented schools produce higher rates of learning.

2.2.2. Inadequate schools cannot provide students with fulfilling futures.

2.2.3. Gender discrimination begins in school, when boys are put ahead of girls. This causes girls to have low-self esteem and feel subordinate to men.

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. Progressivism

3.1.1. Generic Notions

3.1.1.1. The form of Pragmatism formed the idea of progressivsm in education. John Dewey belived that children should have an education that was developmentally on level with the child as an individual.

3.1.1.2. Children should learn democracy in the classroom, and be prepared to become active members in society

3.1.1.3. Students should have freedom and responsibility.

3.1.2. Goal of Education

3.1.2.1. Providing students the knowledge to change society for the better.

3.1.2.2. Helping students improve their social class.

3.1.2.3. Teaching students to become social.

3.1.2.4. Preparing students for a Democratic society.

3.1.3. Role of the Teacher

3.1.3.1. Encourages students

3.1.3.2. Poses questions

3.1.3.3. Plan lessons that engage students.

3.1.4. Key Researchers

3.1.4.1. John Dewey

3.1.5. Method of Instructions

3.1.5.1. Children learn individually and in groups

3.1.5.2. Individualized course of study

3.1.5.3. Project method of assesment

3.1.6. Curriculum

3.1.6.1. Related to student interests

3.1.6.2. Child based curriculum.

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. State District four

4.1.1. Senator

4.1.1.1. Jeff Sessions

4.1.1.2. Richard Shelby

4.1.2. Representative

4.1.2.1. Robert Aderholt

4.2. State superintendent

4.2.1. Tommy Bice

4.3. School District six

4.3.1. Cynthia Sanders McCarty

4.4. Marshall County School Board

4.4.1. Superintendent- Cindy Wigley

4.4.1.1. Bill Aaron

4.4.1.2. Vince Edmonds

4.4.1.3. Terry Kennimar

4.4.1.4. Mark Rains

4.4.1.5. Tony Simmons

5. History of U.S. Education

5.1. The Post-World War II Equity Era (1945-1980)

5.1.1. Equal opportunity for students to receive an education regardless of sex or race. Which included the civil rights movement.

5.1.2. Schools provided remediation to college students, where students would have an opportunity to get a college education.

5.1.3. Federally funded programs like Head Start began to help low income families.

5.2. Conservative Perspective

5.2.1. The belief that progressive education lead to poor quality of education.

5.2.2. Belief that social problems in schools lead to schools failing.

5.2.3. Traditional curiculium did not meet the needs of all the students in public education.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Developmentalists

6.1.1. Curriculum that relates to the interests of the student

6.1.2. Student centered learning

6.1.3. Relating school to real life.

6.2. Piaget

6.2.1. Emphasized teaching well over content

6.2.2. Teacher leads student growth

6.2.3. Children can only learn according to developmental stage

6.2.4. Environment greatly affects student leaning.

7. Educational Inequality

7.1. Student-centered Explanations

7.1.1. Differences among students more significant that academic standing

7.1.2. Genetic Differences- which could be related to students living environment.

7.1.2.1. Hurn- developed the IQ theory, the IQ contributes to student learning and understanding.

7.1.3. Cultural Deprivation theory- working class and non-white families lacked cultural resources.

7.1.3.1. Example: Books, educational stimuli

7.1.4. Cultural Difference Theory

7.1.4.1. African Americans have difficulty in school because of cultural differences, that do not represent the minority, according to Ogpu's theory.

7.2. School-centered explanation

7.2.1. Coleman and Jenchs felt that schools academic achievement did not relate to school resources.

7.2.2. Critics argued that it is inequality for working class and minority students, these students simply do not achieve due to lack of resources in poorer communities.

7.2.3. Edmonds research resulted that if a school was under strong leadership, held accountable and monitored student learning and school would be effective regardless of socioeconomic background.

7.2.3.1. This was the school-centered approach to educating students, thus resulted in achievement of all students.

8. Equality of Education

8.1. Women were less likely to attain the same education as men, even though women were more often better students than men.

8.2. In the last 20 years women have made many improvements in reaching education goals and have girls have caught up to boys in all levels of academics

8.3. Men still have more advantages than women when competing in academics.

8.4. The coleman study suggested schools should be more innovative, learner centered and being mission driven could make a difference in what students learn and how they learn it.

8.5. Women are still discriminated in occupationally and socially.

8.6. Men and boys are still perceived to do better in math than women, which could be a result of the classroom teacher differentiation instruction.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Political Reform-Equal Education Opportunity

9.1.1. Intersectional choice

9.1.1.1. Charter Schools

9.1.1.1.1. Schools that are free from regulations that apply to traditional public schools, the school has a specific goal that serves students. They control their own staffing, budget, curriculum.

9.1.1.2. Private Schools

9.1.1.2.1. Students pay to attend, student tuition supports school.

9.1.1.3. Public Schools

9.1.1.3.1. Free for students, regulated by the government.

9.1.2. Intrasectional

9.1.2.1. Children can only go to public schools, but can move outside their district as long as the racial balance stays equal.

9.1.3. Intradistrict

9.1.3.1. Controlled choice

9.1.3.1.1. Can choose curriculum

9.1.3.1.2. Can choose any school in a district

9.2. School Based Reform

9.2.1. Teacher Education

9.2.1.1. Restructuring schools based on teacher reform.

9.2.1.1.1. Teacher education programs must be upgraded

9.2.1.1.2. Rigorous standards must be implemented in undergraduate programs

9.2.1.1.3. Schools and universities must be connected in a cooperative manner.

9.2.1.1.4. Changes must be made in the schools and professional lives of teacher, in order to retain competent candidates for a profession

9.2.1.1.5. Professional development in order to keep teachers at the best.

9.2.1.1.6. Put qualified teachers in EVERY classroom.