People in History: Martin Luther

A study aid for preparing a People in History question on Martin Luther for Junior Cert students

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People in History: Martin Luther by Mind Map: People in History: Martin Luther

1. 1.Background

1.1. Luther was studying to become a lawyer but later studied theology and became an Augustinian monk

2. 7. The spread of Lutheranism

2.1. Mainly northern German states + Denmark, Sweden and Norway became Lutheran

2.2. Luther's followers became known as Protestants

2.3. War between Lutheran states and the emperor

2.3.1. War ended with the Peace of Augsburg: each ruler could now decide the religion of his state

3. 2. Justification by Faith Alone

3.1. "...the righteous live by their faith"

3.2. Belief in God is all that is needed to get to heaven

4. 4. Response from Rome

4.1. Pope Leo X ordered Luther's activities to be investigated

4.2. Debate at Leipzig - Luther questioned the authority of the pope

4.3. Papal Bull (Exurge Domine)

4.4. Luther publicly burned the papal bull

5. 6. Wartburg

5.1. On his way home Luther was kidnapped by soldiers of Frederick the Wise

5.2. He stayed in Frederick's castle in Wartburg for a year

5.3. He grew a beard and called himself Junker Georg

5.4. He translated the New Testament into German

6. 3. The Sale of Indulgences

6.1. John Tetzel

6.1.1. He sold indulgences to pay for the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica

6.2. 95 theses

6.2.1. It is said that Luther nailed this to the Castle Church in Wittenberg

7. 5. Diet of Worms

7.1. Emperor Charles V

7.2. Luther did not recant

7.3. 'Edict of Worms' declared Luther an outlaw - anyone could kill him without being punished

8. 8. Luther's later life

8.1. Married a former nun, Catherine Von Bora and had six children

8.2. Luther died of a heart attack in 1546 - one year after The Council of Trent met for the first time to try to correct the abuses in the Catholic Church that he had spoken out against

9. 9. Luther's ideas Vs The Cathlic Church's ideas

9.1. Two scarements, not seven

9.2. Prince head of church, not the pope

9.3. Justification by faith alone Vs Faith + good works

9.4. Mass in vernacular, not Latin

9.5. Priests could marry