Political and Artistic Revolutions of the 19th Century

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Political and Artistic Revolutions of the 19th Century by Mind Map: Political and Artistic Revolutions of the 19th Century

1. Liberalism

1.1. Political philosophy based on Enlightenment principles

1.2. People should be as free as possible from government restraint

1.3. Religious toleration & the separation of church and state

1.4. Government ruled by a constitution containing a legislative assembly elected by qualified voters which would make the laws

1.5. Protection of civil liberties

2. Nationalism

2.1. People's awareness of being part of a community with common institutions, traditions, language, and customs

2.2. Each nationality should have its own central government

2.3. German nationalists supported a single German nation-state with one central government

2.4. Hungarian nationalists were apart of the Austrian Empire but wanted to create their own nation with their own central government

3. Socialism

3.1. Society, usually through government, owns and controls some means of productions

3.2. Equality of all people

3.3. Replaces competition with cooperation in industry

3.4. Utopian socialists, such as Robert Owen, were found to contain impractical dreams

3.5. Movement started as a result of the pitiful conditions created by the Industrial Revolution

4. French Revolutions

4.1. Was a 10 year span of upheaval in France that would forever change the nation and its government.

4.2. Was how Napoleon came to power due to the citizens seeking a strong leader which would be Napoleon.

4.3. Was one of the largest attempts on distinguishing a monarchy.

4.4. France rapidly transformed into a democratic and secular society with freedom of religion, legalization of divorce, decriminalization of same-sex relationships, and civil rights for Jews and black people.

4.5. The french revolution would unfold the modern world to what it is today.

5. Revolutions of the Early 19th Century

5.1. Created huge impacts in europe.

5.2. Congress of Vienna would be created.

5.3. Democracy would be created as well as the separation of conservatives and liberals.

5.4. Impact on German states created factions and separations of states only to be unified.

5.5. Italy would become a unified nation rather than separate states.

6. Italian Unification

6.1. Created the unifications of the separate Italian states into one unified state under the kingdom of Italy.

6.2. The aftermath of this made the city of Rome the capital of Italy.

6.3. The Italic league which is a foreign policy by Cosimo de Medici and Lorenzo de Medici are considered to be harbingers for there national unity.

6.4. Had much involvement with the Holy Roman catholic church.

6.5. Kicked off the movement for the trend of nationalism in Italy.

7. German Unification

7.1. Brought together the separate states of germany to create one nation under one empire.

7.2. The unification exposed tensions due to religious, linguistic, social, and cultural differences among the inhabitants of the new nation.

7.3. Over time the different factions would develop more and more of distinct differences within Germany.

7.4. The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, which had included more than 500 independent states, was effectively dissolved when Emperor Francis II abdicated during the war of the third coalition.

7.5. Created many alliances with in the German factions and separated the country between different rulers.

8. Romanticism

8.1. An intellectual movement in the 18th century which emphazised feelings, emotions and imagination as sources of knowing

8.2. Romantics valued individualism and had a strong interest in the past

8.3. Romanticism gave rise to the Gothic form of literature

8.4. Romantics viewed poetry as the direct expression of the soul

8.5. Romantic artists abandoned classical reason for warmth and emotion

9. Realism

9.1. A movement in the arts which emphasized a realistic view of the world and focused on the everyday life of ordinary people

9.2. Realists avoided emotional language by using precise description

9.3. Realists preferred novels to poems

9.4. Important realist novelists included Charles Dickens and Gustave Flaubert

9.5. Gustave Courbet was one of the most famous realist artists

10. 19th Century Science

10.1. In biology Louis Pasteur promoted the germ theory of disease

10.2. In chemistry Dmitri Mendeleyev classified all the material elements then known on the basis of their atomic weights

10.3. Michael Faraday created a primitive generator that laid the foundation for the use of electrical current

10.4. Charles Darwin discovered the theory of natural selection and organic evolution. Both ideas were very controversial in the 19th century.

10.5. The increase in science also led to an increase in secularization