My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. 4 types of perspectives

1.1.1. 1. Conservative 2. Liberal 3.Radical 4.Neo-Liberal

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. The school serves as the focal point for addressing societal issues.

2.2. Colonial Era 1. Old Deluder Satan Law 2. Massachusetts School Law of 1647

2.2.1. Colleges were established before the country was made.

2.2.2. Wealthy saw education as perpetuating the ruling class, religion, utilitarian, civics.

2.2.3. Thomas Jefferson Supported Education

2.2.4. Education in south was for mainly upper class.

2.2.5. 4 types of schools 1. Grammar Schools (Elementary Schools) 2. Latin Schools (Boston)   3. Dame Schools (Girls Only) 4. Secondar Schools (For boys and the elite)

2.3. Age of Reform

2.3.1. Voting was restricted to Men except for slaves and emotionally disturbed.

2.3.2. Normal schools were created for teacher education.

2.3.3. The Public education was for public stability and social mobility.

2.4. Public Education

2.4.1. Education to slaves and women were very limited

2.4.2. Only a few northern states had special  schools for slaves

2.4.3. Women were educated for only domestic purposes.

2.4.4. University of Iowa was the first university to admit a female in 1856

2.5. Urbanization and the Progressive Impetus

2.5.1. Industrial Revolution is reason for educated workers. Rich and poor gap widened.

2.5.2. John Dewey

2.5.2.1. Father of modern education emphasized needs of individuals to create a better society.

2.5.3. Schools became the focus of social problems such as hygiene, social skills, and health.

2.6. Progressive Movement

2.6.1. John Dewey

2.6.1.1. Progressivism

2.6.2. embryonic society

2.6.2.1. miniature community

2.6.3. Dewey's philosophy is the reason for vocational schools.

2.7. Post WWII

2.7.1. progressive vs traditional

2.7.2. The college student movement for civil rights

2.7.2.1. Schools that participated 1. Michigan 2. California Berkley 3. San francisco State  4.Kent State

2.8. Cycle of reform

2.8.1. Equality vs Equity

2.8.2. Civil Rights Act of 1963

2.8.3. Poesy Vs Ferguson 1896

2.8.4. Brown Vs Topeka Board of Education  1954

2.8.5. Desegregation was main focus

2.8.5.1. All schools and universities opened doors to anyone and everyone.

2.9. Reforms of standard era

2.9.1. Sputnik ad space race influence

2.9.2. Elementary / Secondary Education Act 1965 provided for special needs students.

2.10. Reforms of standard era (1980 +)

2.10.1. Nation at risk (Regan)

2.10.2. Goals 2000 ( Clinton)

2.10.3. RTT (Obama)

2.10.4. Results from these

2.10.4.1. 1. Teaching the test 2. Failing Schools 3.Charter Schools  4. Privatization of schools

2.11. Historical Perspectives on Schools

2.11.1. No Child Left Behind (Bush)

2.11.2. Democratic - Liberal

2.11.3. Radical - Revisionist School

2.11.4. Conservative School

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Definition of Sociology

3.1.1. Understanding how Social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about societies and cultures which they live in .

3.2. Persell's model for analyzing school and societies relationship..

3.2.1. The societal level includes these levels of society, political and economic systems, level of development, and system of social stratification.

3.2.2. The institutional level includes family, schools, churches, business, government and media.

3.2.3. The Interpersonal includes all the processes, symbols interactions within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures and rituals.

3.2.4. The Intrapsychic includes the individual thoughts, beliefs, values and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions.

3.3. Relation between schools and society

3.3.1. Schools are agents of cultural social transmission.

3.3.2. Students are taught the values and beliefs of societies to make them a better person.

3.3.3. Schools select students for educational mobility.

3.3.4. Conflict schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. These students are forced to attend.

3.3.5. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate actual achievement.

3.4. Effects of schooling

3.4.1. Employments

3.4.1.1. More education results in better job opportunities.

3.4.2. Education and mobility

3.4.2.1. Education is a equalizer in the status race.

3.4.2.2. Where you attend makes a huge difference.

3.4.2.3. Rules are not always fair.

3.4.3. Inside schools

3.4.3.1. Curriculum is determined by those who want to perpetuate certain values and beliefs

3.4.3.2. Not all students study the same curriculum

3.4.3.3. Curriculum does determine who goes to college.

3.4.4. Teacher Behavior

3.4.4.1. Teachers expectations influence student  achievement

3.4.4.2. The more teachers demanded from their students results in higher student self esteem and success.

3.4.5. Student peer groups

3.4.5.1. Rebellious students and violence in schools

3.4.5.2. nerds, coolness, and athletes

3.4.5.3. 4 major types of college students

3.4.5.3.1. 1. Careerist (Middle-Upper Class)  2. Intellectuals (Highly educated families, Politically motivated)  3.Striver ( Middle and Lower class)  4.Unconnected (All backgrounds did not participate or achieve any success)

3.4.6. Education and Inequality

3.4.6.1. American society resembles a triangle where most people are at the base.

3.4.6.2. The top 20% in the U.S. possess 75% of the wealth.

3.4.6.3. The top 2% of the world possess 80% of the wealth.

3.4.7. Inadequate Schools

3.4.7.1. Affluent schools provide better social mobility than poorer schools.

3.4.8. Tracking

3.4.8.1. Tracking has a direct effect on student expectations and success.

3.4.9. De facto Segregation

3.4.9.1. People segregate themselves

3.4.9.2. racial integration benefits minorities more

3.4.9.3. integration doesn't seem to harm majority

3.4.10. gender bias

3.4.10.1. Men are paid more still

3.4.10.2. academics are leveling between genders

3.4.10.3. schools still perpetuating the gender inequalities

3.4.11. Current educational crisis

3.4.11.1. 1/3 of children at risk of failing.

3.4.11.2. 1/4 of preschool children are in poverty

3.4.11.3. 15 million have single moms

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. What its philosophy of education

4.1.1. aids them in determining who they are or intend to be and why they do or propose to do

4.1.2. helps teachers  to select knowledge, order their classrooms, interact with students, peers, parents and administrators and select values to emphasize in their classrooms.

4.2. Idealism

4.2.1. search for truth and knowledge through ideas instead of gathering facts about the physical world around us.

4.2.1.1. Role of teacher

4.2.1.1.1. To be a role model in the class room.

4.2.1.1.2. Bring out what is in students mind

4.2.1.1.3. discuss,  question, select material, establish  an environment which will ensure the teacher’s desired outcome.

4.2.1.2. Method of Instruction

4.2.1.2.1. Lecture to provide the information needed

4.2.1.2.2. have individual as well as group projects

4.2.1.3. Curriculum

4.2.1.3.1. Back to basic approach

4.2.1.3.2. whole language or teaching across the curriculum

4.3. Realism

4.3.1. real world material that is reality not ideas

4.3.1.1. Role of teacher

4.3.1.1.1. teacher is to present ideas and information to help students think , evaluate and determine a course of action.

4.3.1.2. Method of instruction

4.3.1.2.1. Lecture, question, and discuss

4.3.1.3. curriculum

4.3.1.3.1. math, reading, writing and the humanities

4.4. Pragmatism

4.4.1. What has meaning and value is the basic foundation of education

4.4.1.1. Role of teacher

4.4.1.1.1. a facilitator of experience

4.4.1.1.2. teacher must have vast knowledge of all disciplines

4.4.1.2. Methods of Instruction

4.4.1.2.1. Formal instruction does not exist

4.4.1.2.2. group activities, and individual instruction is encouraged

4.4.1.2.3. The classroom is changeable according to needs.

4.4.1.3. Curriculum

4.4.1.3.1. Learning and teaching using all subject areas

4.4.1.3.2. teaching across the curriculum

4.4.1.3.3. schools are created to meet the needs of students and society

4.5. Existentialists and Phenomenology

4.5.1. Students must make sense of world around them

4.5.1.1. Role of teacher

4.5.1.1.1. Teachers must know who they are as well as their students

4.5.1.1.2. teachers must take risks to be "wide awake"

4.5.1.2. Methods of Instruction

4.5.1.2.1. Learning is intensely personal

4.5.1.2.2. Students are encouraged to learn what interests them

4.5.1.2.3. teachers help students understand "their" world

4.5.1.3. Curriculum

4.5.1.3.1. Humanities are emphasized

4.5.1.3.2. Fine arts are main subject

4.6. Neo- Marxism

4.6.1. have students question on why things exist and to continue to question

4.6.1.1. Role of teacher

4.6.1.1.1. Engage students in critical examination of the world

4.6.1.1.2. asset students in becoming "wide awake"

4.6.1.2. Methods of Instruction

4.6.1.2.1. question and answer

4.6.1.2.2. seek alternative solutions to societies problems

4.6.1.3. Curriculum

4.6.1.3.1. the needs of many and support acceptance of various cultures and differences.

4.7. Post modernist and critical theory

4.7.1. Connect theory and practice

4.7.1.1. Role of teacher

4.7.1.1.1. an agent of change , transformative individuals

4.7.1.1.2. Acceptance of many differences in learning and culture

4.7.1.1.3. Inclusion to all group

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Structure of U.S. Schools

5.1.1. Governance

5.1.1.1. Those powers not mentioned in the constitution are explicitly delegated. Each state is responsible for education.

5.1.1.2. U.S. Dept. of Education was created in 1970.

5.1.1.3. Dept. of Education has very little power.

5.1.2. Centalization

5.1.2.1. 55 million students are educated at the cost of $650 billion.

5.1.2.2. 1930s there were 128,000 public school districts.

5.1.2.3. 1980s there were slightly under 16,000 districts in the U.S.

5.1.2.4. The average Elementary school has 450 students. High schools have 856.

5.1.3. Student Composition in public schools

5.1.3.1. 53.5 % are white

5.1.3.2. Of the states, 16 have less than 50 % white

5.1.3.3. Ten states have no minorities

5.1.3.4. Large states are heavily multiracial

5.1.4. Private Schools

5.1.4.1. There are approximately 28,200 elementary and secondary private schools in U.S.

5.1.4.2. Private schools constitute 25% of all schools and educate only 10% of all students.

5.1.4.3. In 1930's there were less than 10,000 private schools.

5.1.4.4. In 2009 there were 21,780 private elementary and secondary schools.

5.1.4.5. Most private schools are located on east and west coast.

5.1.4.6. Connecticut has most. Wyoming has least.

5.1.4.7. in 1980's and 1990's studies indicate private schools were better learning environments.

5.1.4.8. Thus, school choice has a significant credibility.

5.2. School Processes and Cultures

5.2.1. Schools are separate social organizations because they have definitive population.

5.2.2. Schools are separate social organizations because they have political structures.

5.2.3. Schools are separate social organizations because they have their own special culture.

5.3. International School Structure

5.3.1. Great Britain

5.3.1.1. The establishment of a national education system was opposed by the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church. The 1944 Education created free elem. And sec. education for all.

5.3.2. France

5.3.2.1. The government controls everything down to the classroom.

5.3.3. Former Soviet Union

5.3.3.1. Being a member of the elite Communist Party had benefits for those children.

5.3.4. Japan

5.3.4.1. Education is highly competitive.

5.3.5. Germany

5.3.5.1. German students are sorted at an early age to be tracked into their appropriate careers.

5.3.6. Finalnad

5.3.6.1. Finland had historically had the highest scores on math, science, and literacy exams.

5.4. 5 characteristics of highly educated schools

5.4.1. High expectations of every one in school.

5.4.2. The principle is highly visible

5.4.3. Student Achievement is monitored

5.4.4. Safety and security

5.4.5. clear mission

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Pedagogy and the transmission of knowledge

6.1.1. Idealists say we should teach the great works of mankind

6.1.2. Conservatist say we should return to a humanist foundation

6.1.3. Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive.

6.2. Other influences on curriculum

6.2.1. Evolutionist

6.2.2. Creationist

6.2.3. Science and Math

6.2.4. Nation at risk

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Calculating Educational and Life Outcomes

7.1.1. Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies.

7.1.2. Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences

7.2. Class

7.2.1. Schools represent the middle and upper class.

7.2.2. Parental income or expectations is directly related to educational achievement and test performance.

7.3. Race

7.3.1. Race has direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves.

7.3.2. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans

7.4. Gender

7.4.1. In the last 20 years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment

7.4.2. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries

7.5. ACT and SAT

7.5.1. have been the determining factor for students educational success.

7.5.2. The test have been favored to white Americans and the upper and middle class.

7.6. Students with special needs

7.6.1. have experienced major gains in educational opportunities.  PL94-142 Education of Handicapped Act of 1975

7.6.2. IDEA

7.6.2.1. Section 504 Physical Disabilities

7.6.2.2. Special Ed. any type of learning disabilities

7.7. Coleman study of 1982

7.7.1. Private school students outperform public city school.

7.7.2. Differences in schools fo make a difference.

7.7.3. The differences is in how much more demanding private schools.

7.8. Coleman study challenges

7.8.1. Schools do make a difference.

7.8.2. Where a student goes to school is often related to race and socioeconomic background.

8. Educational Reform

8.1. Characteristics of highly effective teacher

8.1.1. A "calling for the profession"

8.1.2. Street Smart

8.1.3. Professional Knowledge

8.2. Reform in Education

8.2.1. 1980's to 2012

8.2.2. First concerned with accountability and achievement.

8.2.3. Second was processes with schools.

8.3. Federal Involvement

8.3.1. America 2000

8.3.2. Goals 2000

8.3.3. No child left behind

8.3.4. Race to the top

8.4. Approaches to Reform

8.4.1. Neo- Liberal Approach

8.4.2. Societal and Community Approach

8.5. School based reform

8.5.1. School choice

8.5.2. charter schools

8.5.3. tuition vouchers

8.5.4. Intersectional choice plans

8.5.4.1. Public or private

8.5.5. Intrasectional

8.5.5.1. any public school in district

8.5.6. school-business partnerships

8.5.7. privatization of schools

8.5.8. school to work programs

8.6. Teacher Education Programs

8.6.1. Three Major Points

8.6.1.1. More Intellectual demands in education

8.6.1.2. attract and retain competent.

8.6.1.3. reorganize educational academic and professional development

8.6.2. PLAN

8.6.3. Teacher Quality

8.6.4. The effective school movement

8.6.5. Plan on

8.6.6. highly effective school characteristics

8.7. Societal, Community, Economic and Political Reforms

8.7.1. State Takes over

8.8. School Finance Reforms

8.8.1. Where you are born or live determines your advantage for good education

8.9. Full service schools

8.9.1. repair and educate community

8.10. Solutions and proposals

8.10.1. Integrative Realm - basic skills and knowledge is the focus for school improvement and student achievement.

8.10.2. Developmental Realm – focus is on developing the whole child by having schools become more humane institutions.

9. Educational Inequality

9.1. Unequal educational achievment

9.1.1. Functionalist Theorist support the idea that each students success is determined by their own hard work and desired to succeed.

9.1.2. Conflict theorist support the idea that student success is affected by their environment.

9.1.3. Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools, and environment.

9.2. Other factors that influence student success

9.2.1. Student Centered factors such as family, community, peer group.

9.2.2. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.