Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 7: Curriculum & Pedagogy

2. Chapter 2: Politics of Eduction

2.1. Conservative Perspective

2.1.1. Originated in 19th century Darwinist thought as it applied to society. The perspective was developed by William Graham Sumner and looks at social evolution as an environment where there is competition in order to survive (free market system). This perspective places emphasis on the individual and suggests that individuals have a choice in their success or failure and solutions to problems be addressed at the individual level. The role of the school in this perspective is to ensure the most talented and hard working individuals receive the necessary education to maximize economic and social productivity. Schools socialize children into their adult roles necessary to maintain social order. The school's function is to transmit cultural traditions through curriculum.

2.2. Liberal Perspective

2.2.1. Has its origins in the 20th century, in the works of John Dewey. Shares some beliefs of the conservative perspective, though believe society should be regulated socially and economically as with the needs of the majority. It believes that government should interceded at the individual level to ensure equality. The liberal explanation for unequal performance is that some individuals and groups are significantly more advantaged than others. Because of this, programs and policies should be made to level the playing field.

2.3. Radical Perspective

2.3.1. Believes that both conservative and liberal beliefs in free market capitalism are wrong and that democratic socialism is a fairer political-economic system. Individuals are not responsible and all problems are a result of the system that disadvantages them. The radical definition of educational problems are much simpler stated than what is in the text. Its everyone else fault except for the individual. All problems are because the system has failed poor, minorities, and women through classist, racist, and homophobic policies.

2.4. Neo-liberal Perspective

2.4.1. A synthesis of conservative and liberal perspectives. View deep rooted systems such as teacher unions and tenure as responsible for the decline in the US education system. Five areas important are austerity, the market model, individualism, state intervention, and economic prosperity, race and class. Many problems in schools are due to failing schools and ineffective teachers.

3. Chapter 3: History of U.S. Education

3.1. In my opinion, the movement to provide education to women has had the most influence on education. Women were not seen as needing an education as their place was in the home. Beginning in the 1820s, a movement for educating women started gaining traction. By 1856, the first women attended public post secondary education at the University of Iowa. It was through this movement that led to African Americans receiving public education. Most importantly, it served as an awakening that everyone had an important and equal part to play in society regardless of sex or race.

3.2. The radical-revisionist historical interpretation of U.S. education is that it expanded in order to meet the needs of elites of society for controlling the lower class and immigrants and for economic efficiency and productivity. They further point out that each period of educational reform only served to increase the elite hold over the lower classes and minorities.

4. Chapter 4: Sociology of Education

4.1. The functionalist theory is that education was of critical importance in creating the the moral unity necessary for social cohesion and harmony. In a highly integrated, well-functioning society, schools socialize students into the appropriate values, and sort and select students according to their abilities.

4.2. The conflict theory is that dominant groups impose their will on subordinate groups through force and manipulation. From a conflict point of view, schools are similar to social battlefields where students struggle against teachers, teachers against administration, and so on.

4.3. Interactional theories are primarily critiques and extensions of functional and conflict perspectives. They attempt to make the commonplace strange by flipping everyday taken-for-granted behaviors and interactions between students and teachers. It is exactly what one does not question that is most problematic.

4.4. Effects of schooling

4.4.1. In general, most Americans believe that more education leads to increased economic and social mobility.

4.4.2. Most students believe that graduating from college will lead to greater employment opportunities.

4.4.3. Schools socialize and sort and select students and, in doing so, reproduce society.

4.4.4. Tracking refers the placement of students in curricular programs based on abilities and inclinations.

4.4.5. Inadequate schools reproduce inequalities as is most often seen in urban schools.

5. Chapter 5: Philosophy of Education

5.1. Existentialism is an individualistic philosophy that is rather modern but its roots can be traced back to the Bible. Existentialists believe that people are placed on earth alone and must make sense out of the chaos they encounter. This philosophy prescribes that people create their identity and find their own meaning through choices that they make. Individuals are continuously becoming, creating chaos and order, creating good and evil. Ultimately, the choice is that of the individuals. Researchers of existentialism include Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), Martin Buber (1878-1965), Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1986), and Maxine Greene (1917-2014). The goal of existentialism is that the education should focus on the individual. They also believe that education should stress individuality; that it should include discussion on both the rational and non-rational world; and that the tensions of living in the world should be addressed. This philosophy requires that teachers must take risks and expose themselves to students and work constantly to enable students to become "wide awake". Learning is an intensely personal process and each student's different learning style must be properly identified in order to properly teach the student. Both the teacher and student are in a constant process of discovering and rediscovering knowledge an together reach an understanding of the world past, present, and future. Existentialist curriculum is heavily biased toward the humanities. They believe in exposing students at an early age to problems, as well as possibilities, horrors, and accomplishments humankind is capable of producing.

6. Chapter 6: Schools as Organizations

7. Chapter 8: Equality of Opportunity

8. Chapter 9: Educational Inequality

9. Chapter 10: Educational Reform