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Diversity by Mind Map: Diversity

1. o Autism

1.1. Autism= Autism means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. (TFesperman, 2009)

1.2. o A link to a website of a professional organization that focuses on providing educators detailed information http://www.ctc.ca.gov http://nationalautismassociation.org https://www.autismspeaks.org http://www.cde.state.co.us/cdesped/guidelines_autismedid

1.3. o Behavior that will be observable in a classroom environment; Because Autism is a spectrum disorder, it can range from very mild to very severe and occur in all ethnic, socioeconomic and age groups. Males are four times more likely to have autism than females. Some children with autism appear normal before age 1 or 2 and then suddenly “regress” and lose language or social skills they had previously gained. This is called the regressive type of autism.

1.3.1. ¥ Social impairments; Avoid or resist physical contact, Have low to no social skills, Not play “pretend” games, Avoid eye contact, Want to be alone, Have difficulty understanding, or showing understanding, or other people’s feelings or their own

1.3.2. ¥ Cognitive impairments; Get upset by minor changes, Not respond to their name (the child may appear deaf), Not point at objects or things of interest, or demonstrate interest, Give unrelated answers to questions, Get upset by minor changes, Have obsessive interests, Reverse pronouns (e.g., says “you” instead of “I”)

1.3.3. ¥ Communication difficulties; Have no speech or delayed speech, Repeat words or phrases over and over (echolalia)

1.3.4. ¥ Repetitive behaviors; Flap their hands, rock their body, or spin in circles

1.4. o Impact the behaviors have on the student’s academic achievement in the areas of reading, writing, speaking, and listening.

1.4.1. • cognitive impairments

1.4.2. communication difficulties • Have no speech or delayed speech

1.4.3. ¥ repetitive behaviors

1.5. o Three assessment tools that could be used to verify a student’s behavioral and learning abilities

1.5.1. (1) A typical diagnostic evaluation involves a multi-disciplinary team of doctors including a pediatrician, psychologist, speech and language pathologist and occupational therapist. Genetic testing may likewise be recommended, as well as screening for related medical issues such as sleep difficulties. This type of comprehensive helps parents understand as much as possible about their child's strengths and needs. (“Autism Speaks,” 2012)

1.5.2. (2) The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is a semi-structured, investigator-based interview for caregivers of children and adults for whom autism or pervasive developmental disorders is a possible diagnosis. The assessment begins with a home visit by a therapist who interviews the child's parents. A home visit provides a chance to meet the child and to get a sense of the parents' priorities. This interview may be scheduled as part of the in-clinic assessment . (Professionals & Autistic, 1997)

1.5.3. (3) The Prelinguistic Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (PL-ADOS) is a semi-structured observation scale for diagnosing children who are not yet using phrase speech and who are suspected of having autism. The scale is administered to the child with the help of a parent. This instrument provides an opportunity to observe specific aspects of the child's social behavior, such as joint attention, imitation, and sharing of affect with the examiner and parent. PL-ADOS scores are reported to discriminate between children with autism and children with nonautistic developmental disabilities. The resulting diagnostic algorithm is theoretically linked to diagnostic constructs associated with International Classification of Diseases (10th revision) and DSM-IV criteria for autism. (Professionals & Autistic, 1997)

1.6. o Three instructional strategies that could be used to provide effective accommodations or adaptations

1.6.1. ♣ Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)= ABA is the name of the systematic approach to the assessment and evaluation of behavior, and the application of interventions that alter behavior. The principles of analyzing behavior to understand its function, controlling the environment and interactions prior to a behavior (antecedents) and adjusting responses (consequences), and using positive reinforcement (rewarding what you want to see) are all ABA techniques that are often used in shaping behavior in individuals with autism. Many programs use the principles of ABA as a primary teaching method, or as a way of promoting positive and adaptive behavior. (“Autism Speaks,” 2012)

1.6.2. ♣ Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT)/ Lovaas Model= Named for its pioneer (ABA-based) Teacher-directed DTT targets skills and behaviors based on an established curriculum. Each skill is broken down into small steps, and taught using prompts, which are gradually eliminated as the steps are mastered. The child is given repeated opportunities to learn and practice each step in a variety of settings. Each time the child achieves the desired result, he receives positive reinforcement, such as verbal praise or something that he finds to be highly motivating. (“Autism Speaks,” 2012)

1.6.3. ♣ Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)= The PECS system allows children with little or no verbal ability to communicate using pictures. An adult helps the child build a vocabulary and articulate desires, observations or feelings by using pictures consistently. It starts with teaching the child to exchange a picture for an object. Eventually, the individual learns to distinguish between pictures and symbols and use these to form sentences. Although PECS is based on visual tools, verbal reinforcement is a major component and verbal communication is encouraged. (“Autism Speaks,” 2012)

2. ADD

2.1. Other health impairment means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that--(i) Is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and(ii) Adversely affects a child's educational performance. (TFesperman, 2009)

2.1.1. o A link to a website of a professional organization that focuses on providing educators detailed information http://addresources.org https://add.org

2.1.2. o Behavior that will be observable in a classroom environment The three primary characteristics of ADD/ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The signs and symptoms a child with attention deficit disorder has depends on which characteristics predominate. Inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive (the most common form of ADD/ADHD). (“Signs and symptoms of attention deficit disorder in kids,” 2016.) Inattentive, but not hyperactive or impulsive; Symptoms of inattention in children ♣ Impulsive (the most common form of ADD/ADHD).

2.1.3. o Impact the behaviors have on the student’s academic achievement in the areas of reading, writing, speaking, and listening. ♣ Guesses, rather than taking time to solve a problem ♣ Says the wrong thing at the wrong time ♣ Often interrupts others ♣ Blurts out answers in class without waiting to be called on or hear the whole question ♣ Doesn’t pay attention to details ♣ Has difficulty remembering things and following instructions ♣ Has trouble staying organized, planning ahead, and finishing projects ♣ Gets bored with a task before it’s completed

2.1.4. o Three assessment tools that could be used to verify a student’s behavioral and learning abilities • Behavioral Evaluation • Specific questionnaires and rating scales are used to review and quantify the behavioral characteristics of ADHD. The AAP has developed clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and evaluation of children with ADHD, and finds that such behavioral rating scales accurately distinguish between children with and without ADHD (AAP, 2000). Conversely, AAP recommends not using broadband rating scales or teacher global questionnaires in the diagnosis of children with ADHD. • As with all psychological tests, child-rating scales have a range of measurement error. Appropriate scales have satisfactory norms for the child's chronological age and ability levels. • Collecting information about the child’s ADHD symptoms from several different sources helps ensure that the information is accurate. Appropriate sources of information include the child’s parents, teachers, other diagnosticians such as psychologists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, social workers, and physicians. It is also important to review both the child’s previous medical history as well as his or her school records. (“Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,” 2003) Educational Evaluation • An educational evaluation assesses the extent to which a child’s symptoms of ADHD impair his or her academic performance at school. The evaluation involves direct observations of the child in the classroom as well as a review of his or her academic productivity. • Classroom observations are used to record how often the child exhibits various ADHD symptoms in the classroom. The frequency with which the child with ADHD exhibits these and other target behaviors are compared to norms for other children of the same age and gender. It is also important to compare the behavior of the child with ADHD to the behaviors of other children in his or her classroom. (“Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,” 2003) Medical Evaluation o Part B of IDEA does not necessarily require a school district to conduct a medical evaluation for the purpose of determining whether a child has ADHD. If a public agency believes that a medical evaluation by a licensed physician is needed as part of the evaluation to determine whether a child suspected of having ADHD meets the eligibility criteria of the OHI category, or any other disability category under Part B, the school district must ensure that this evaluation is conducted at no cost to the parents. (“Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,” 2003)

2.1.5. o Three instructional strategies that could be used to provide effective accommodations or adaptations Provide an advance organizer. (1) Prepare students for the day's lesson by quickly summarizing the order of various activities planned. Explain, for example, that a review of the previous lesson will be followed by new information and that both group and independent work will be expected. Set learning expectations. (1) State what students are expected to learn during the lesson. For example, explain to students that a language arts lesson will involve reading a story about Paul Bunyan and identifying new vocabulary words in the story. Simplify instructions, choices, and scheduling. (1) The simpler the expectations communicated to an ADHD student, the more likely it is that he or she will comprehend and complete them in a timely and productive manner.

3. Specific Learning Disabilities

3.1. General. Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. (ii) Disorders not included. Specific learning disability does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. (TFesperman, 2009)

3.1.1. o A link to a website of a professional organization that focuses on providing educators detailed information http://ldaamerica.org

3.1.2. o Three assessment tools that could be used to verify a student’s behavioral and learning abilities SLD Evaluation: Linking Cognitive Assessment Data to Learning Strategies Cognitive Processing Deficit Approaches (1) Processing Deficit Approach (1) Specific cognitive processes

3.1.3. o Three instructional strategies that could be used to provide effective accommodations or adaptations Fluid Intelligence 1. Refers to mental operations that a person uses when presented with a relatively novel task that cannot be performed automatically. Includes concept formation, problem solving, reorganizing and transforming Crystallized Intelligence Refers to the breadth and depth of a person’s general fund of knowledge. These knowledge stores are acquired through formal school experiences and general life experience. These stores are primarily language based and include both declarative and procedural knowledge Processing Speed Refers to the ability to fluently and automatically perform cognitive tasks (mental quickness).

3.1.4. o Impact the behaviors have on the student’s academic achievement in the areas of reading, writing, speaking, and listening. ♣ Reading difficulties are observed among students with learning disabilities more than any other problem area of academic performance. It is the most prevalent type of academic difficulty for students with learning disabilities. It is estimated that as many as 90% of students with learning disabilities have reading difficulties, and even the low estimates are approximately 60% (Bender, 2001). (NASET, 2008) ♣ Dyslexia is one of several distinct learning disabilities. It is a specific language-based disorder characterized by difficulties in single word decoding, usually reflecting insufficient phonological processing abilities. The difficulties in single word decoding are often unexpected in relation to age and other cognitive and academic abilities; they are not the result of generalized developmental disability or sensory impairment. Dyslexia is manifested by variable difficulty with different forms of language, often including, in addition to problems reading, a conspicuous problem with acquiring proficiency in writing and spelling. (NASET, 2008) o Faulty auditory perception without hearing impairment o Slow auditory or visual processing o Inability to distinguish or separate the sounds of spoken words o Lack of knowledge of the purpose of reading o Failure to attend to critical aspects of the word, sentence, or paragraph o Failure to understand that letters represent units of speech ♣ Students with learning disabilities may have problems in both math calculations and math reasoning (USOE, 1977). These students often have a number of problems in mathematical thinking (Hunt & Marshall, 2005). Mathematical thinking is a process that begins early in most children. Even before formal education begins, children are exposed to various situations that involve the application of mathematical concepts. As they enter formal schooling, they take the knowledge of what they had previously learned and begin to apply it in a more formal manner. (NASET, 2008) o Estimating o Doing computational skills o Solving problems o Understanding measurement o Using mathematics for prediction o Creating and reading graphs and charts ♣ Writing is a highly complex method of expression involving the integration of eye–hand, linguistic, and conceptual abilities. As a result, it is usually the last skill children master. Whereas reading is usually considered the receptive form of a graphic symbol system, writing is considered the expressive form of that system. The primary concern in the assessment of composition skills is the content of the student’s writing, not its form. o Feel overwhelmed by the idea of getting started o Struggle to organize and use the mechanics of writing o Struggle to develop their fluency o Have difficulties spelling and constructing written products in a legible fashion o Submit written work that is too brief

3.1.5. o Behavior that will be observable in a classroom environment ♣ Children with learning disabilities are a heterogeneous group. These children are a diverse group of individuals, exhibiting potential difficulties in many different areas. For example, one child with a learning disability may experience significant reading problems, while another may experience no reading problems whatsoever, but has significant difficulties with written expression. ♣ Learning disabilities may also be mild, moderate, or severe. Students differ too, in their coping skills. According to Bowe (2005), “some learn to adjust to LD so well that they ‘pass’ as not having a disability, while others struggle throughout their lives to even do ‘simple’ things. Despite these differences, LD always begins in childhood and always is a life-long condition” (p. 71). • Hyperactivity • Impulsivity • Perceptual-motor impairments • Disorders of memory and thinking • Emotional labiality • Academic difficulties • Coordination problems • Language deficits • Disorders of attention • Equivocal neurological signs

4. o Emotional/Behavioral Issues

4.1. Emotional/Behavioral Issues=means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance: 1. (A)  An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. 2. (B)  An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. 3. (C)  Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. 4. (D)  A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. 5. (E)  A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. (TFesperman, 2009)

4.1.1. o A link to a website of a professional organization that focuses on providing educators detailed information http://www.pacer.org/cmh/ https://www.naset.org/emotionaldisturbance2.0.html

4.1.2. Behavior that will be observable in a classroom environment o Mental illnesses are medical conditions that disrupt a person’s thinking, feeling, mood, ability to relate to others and daily functioning. Just as diabetes is a disorder of the pancreas, mental illnesses are medical conditions that often result in a diminished capacity for coping with the ordinary demands of life. ♣ Hyperactivity (short attention span, impulsiveness);      ♣ Aggression or self-injurious behavior (acting out, fighting);      ♣ Withdrawal (not interacting socially with others, excessive fear or anxiety);      ♣ Immaturity (inappropriate crying, temper tantrums, poor coping skills); and      ♣ Learning difficulties (academically performing below grade level).

4.1.3. o Impact the behaviors have on the student’s academic achievement in the areas of reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Most achieve below grade level in academic achievement, with the greatest deficits in both math and spelling. Many have a coexisting learning disability of some type. Students that exhibit externalizing behaviors are at the greatest risk for continued deficits in academic functioning. (Council et al., 2013)

4.1.4. Three assessment tools that could be used to verify a student’s behavioral and learning abilities • DECA-C: Devereux Early Childhood Assessment Clinical Form = designed to support early intervention efforts to reduce or eliminate significant emotional and behavioral concerns in preschool children. The DECA-C can be used to: (1) Guide interventions, (2) Identify children needing special services, (3) Assess outcomes and (4) Help programs meet Head Start, IDEA, and similar requirements. Designed to help childcare providers, early childhood personnel, and families evaluate the learning environment • Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21); A 42-item questionnaire designed to measure the severity of a range of symptoms common to both depression and anxiety. A shortened version is used by the SFCAPC.

4.1.5. o Three instructional strategies that could be used to provide effective accommodations or adaptations ♣ Wraparound planning is a collaborative process that has shown great promise in supporting students with emotional disorders, both in research and in more practical application. This planning process brings all of the involved service providers (i.e., adult rehabilitation services, mental health services, guidance counselor) and individuals together to create a natural support system that is founded on the strengths of the individual student and the community in which that student lives. Teachers should: ♣ Make lesson objectives clear ♣ Engage students and teach in a lively manner ♣ Encourage students ♣ Build student interest ♣ Prompt for answers Use the Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) model to solve the problems ¥ Identify the problem behavior ¥ Describe the details of its occurrence ¥ Gather info using rating scales, interviews, observations, etc. ¥ Review the data ¥ Form a hypothesis about the behavior Based on the hypothesis, make a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP). If the BIP is not successful, the team goes back and reviews the data to come up with another BIP

5. o Giftedness

5.1. High ability students have been labeled in many ways. Currently, the label “gifted” is used to indicate high intellectual or academic ability, and “gifted education” is recognized as the educational field devoted to the study of this student population. However, defining “gifted” is no easy task. The earliest use of this word to identify high ability students was by Lewis Terman in 1925 (Stephens and Karnes 2000; Morelock 1996).

5.1.1. o A link to a website of a professional organization that focuses on providing educators detailed information https://www.nagc.org/resources-publications/resources-parents http://www.greatschools.org/gk/articles/resources-for-gifted-students/ http://www.nsgt.org/educational-resources/

5.1.2. o Behavior that will be observable in a classroom environment ♣ Process and retain large amounts of information ♣ Comprehend materials at advanced levels ♣ Curious and have varied and sometimes intense interests ♣ Possess accelerated and exible thought processes ♣ Learn things at an earlier age than peers ♣ May possess high energy levels and longer attention spans ♣ Transfer knowledge and apply it to new situations ♣ High desire to learn and seek out their own interests

5.1.3. o Impact the behaviors have on the student’s academic achievement in the areas of reading, writing, speaking, and listening. May be early readers Ability to manipulate a symbol system Think logically High levels of language development and verbal ability

5.1.4. Three assessment tools that could be used to verify a student’s behavioral and learning abilities • Otis-Lennon School Ability Test was one of the most frequently used group intelligence tests; however, it has been questioned as a valid indicator of giftedness due to a lack of construct validity body of evidence (BOE) for use in identification and programming o A body of evidence should consist of quantitative and qualitative measures to determine if a student meets the criteria for gifted identification and to build a student profile of strengths and interests. Quantitative assessment provides numerical scores or ratings that can be analyzed or quantified. Qualitative assessment provides interpretive and descriptive information about certain attributes, characteristics, behaviors or performances. The former is considered objective, while the latter is considered subjective. (“IDChapter 8.20.15,” 2015) ♣ Achievement Tests; Assessment data from standardized, criterion- and norm-referenced tests are utilized to determine if a student demonstrates gifted ability in a specific academic area. Specific academic aptitude areas include reading, writing, math, science, social studies, and world language. Specific talent aptitude areas include visual arts, performing arts, music and dance.

5.1.5. Three instructional strategies that could be used to provide effective accommodations ♣ Posing open-ended questions that require higher-level thinking ♣ Modeling thinking strategies, such as decisionmaking and evaluation ♣ Accepting ideas and suggestions from students and expanding on them ♣ Facilitating original and independent problems and solutions ♣ Helping students identify rules, principles, and relationships ♣ Taking time to explain the nature of errors