Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. A philosophical approach aids teachers in; 1.Selecting knowledge for the classroom 2.Ordering their classroom                     3.Interacting with students, peers, parents and administrators.                                           4.Selecting values for their classroom

1.2. A philosophy aids teachers in understanding; 1.Who they are and                                        2.Why they do what they do

1.3. Idealism

1.3.1. Dialectic and "dialectical approach"

1.3.2. Idealist in education encourage students to search for the truth.

1.3.3. Role of the teacher;                                          1.A role model in the classroom                      2.To provoke thought                                        3.To bring out what is already in their mind.

1.3.4. Methods of instruction                                1.Discussion                                                 2.Questioning                                                 3.Lecture on material not presented in text.

1.3.5. Curriculum                                                      1.Study the great works                                  2.All new problems have their roots in the past                                                       history                                              4.Great literature, sciences, math, history, philosophy                                                        5.A basic core foundation

1.4. Realism

1.4.1. The material world is real

1.4.2. It exist without anyone percieving

1.4.3. The real world exists before ideas exist

1.4.4. Aristotle develop a system of logical thinking

1.4.5. Syllogism or a system of logical thinking

1.4.6. 1.A major premise                                          2.A minor premise                                       3.Conclusion                                            4.Understand the facts then make assumptions and conclusions

1.4.7. Notable Realist                                              -Thomas Aquinas                                         -Francis Bacon                                                 -John Locke(blank state or tabula rasa)

1.4.8. Goals of Education                                   1.Understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems

1.4.9. Role of the teacher                                      1.Present ideas in a clear and consistent manner                                                         2.Enable students to examine from an objective approach

1.4.10. Methods of instruction                                 1.Lecture                                                       2.Question and Answer                            3.Discussion

1.4.11. Curriculum                                                  1.Consists of basic body of knowledge

1.5. Pragmatism

1.5.1. John Dewey, George Sanders Pierce, William James, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau

1.5.2. Learning through experience

1.5.3. The approach to learning by scientific inquiry

1.5.4. Encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome

1.5.5. Philosophies that were born from Pragmatism 1.Progressivism- John Dewey                       2.Social Reconstruction- George Counts

1.5.6. The Goal of Education                                -Provide students with the knowledge to improve society

1.5.7. Role of the teacher                                            -Facilitator of learning activities methods of instruction                                                   -Learn individually as well as in groups

1.5.8. Curriculum                                               -Integrated core subjects                               -Teaching across the curriculum

1.6. Existentialism & Phenomenology

1.6.1. Existence proceeds essence

1.6.2. We are who we are as a result of our decisions

1.6.3. Perception of the world is based on one's ability to make sense of it

1.6.4. Goal of Education                                            -The focus is on the individual, cognitively and effectively

1.6.5. Education liberates the individual from a chaotic world

1.6.6. Role of the Teacher                                          -The reflective teacher enables students to be reflective students. It is a very personal teacher/students relationship.

1.6.7. Methods of Instruction                                -Each student has a different learning style. Help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities and working together.

1.6.8. Curriculum                                                    -Humanities are heavily emphasized students should be exposed to the harsh and good realities of the world.

1.7. Neo-Marxism

1.7.1. The purpose of education in a capitalist society is to perpetuate the ideology of the dominant class.

1.7.2. A capitalist society should be economically proficient to allow its citizens to live productive and decent lives.

1.7.3. Goal of Education                                         -schools perpetuate the ideology of the dominant society and legitimize it to all other groups.                                                       -Education enables individuals to understand the weakness of the dominant society and propose alternatives.

1.7.4. Role of the Teacher                                       -Engage students to critically examine the world which is similar to "wide wakeness".

1.7.5. Curriculum                                                     -Socially constructed                                       -Teachers must have a command of how the curriculum can be socially manipulated

1.8. Post Modernists and Critical Theory

1.8.1. The Goal of Education is to explore differences and to explore differences and to explore possibilities that may seem inherently impossible.

1.8.2. Working together to achieve balance and equity through democratic transformation.

1.8.3. Role of the Teacher                                           -an agent of change

1.8.4. Curriculum and Instruction                          -Democratic processes                               -Teachers, students, communities are all involved in the process of education                -Schools and curriculum are agents of change

2. Schools as Organizations

2.1. The structure of U.S. schools

2.1.1. Governance Those powers were not mentioned in the constitution are explicitly delegated to the states. Each state is responsible for education. The U.S. department of education has very little power. The U.S. department of education was created in 1970.

2.1.2. Centralization 55 million students are educated at the cost of $650 billion. 1930's there were 128,000 public school districts. 1980's there were slightly under 16,000 districts in the U.S. The average elementary school has 450 students. High schools have 856.

2.1.3. Student Composition in Public Schools 53.5% are white. Of the states, 16 have less than 50% white. Ten states have no minoroties Large states are heavily multiracial. New York City is 85.6% minority. Los Angeles is 91.3% minority. Detroit is 97.4% minority.

2.1.4. Degree of Openess Very few academic impediments exist to graduate high school but many social impediments exist. Very democratic process of education. Open to all and very inclusive.

2.1.5. Private Schools There are approximately 28,200 elementary and secondary private schools in the U.S. Private schools constitute 25% of all schools and educate only 10% of all students. In 1930's there were less than 10,000 private schools. In 2009 there were 21,780 private elementary and secondary schools. Most private schools are located on the east and west coasts. Connecticut has the most and Wyoming has the least. In 1980's and 1990's studies indicate private schools were better learning environments. Thus, school choice has a significant credibility.

2.2. Internal Comparisons

2.2.1. In other countries individuals go through rigorous academic rights of passage. This design seperates those that can and those that cannot as well as those that have and those that have not.

2.3. Great Britain

2.3.1. In 19th Century England the rich had education in private schools. The poor did not get educated.

2.3.2. The establishment of a national education system was opposed by the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church.

2.3.3. The 1944 Education created free elementary and secondary education for all.

2.3.4. England decentralized the education system which had been fundamentally elitists.

2.3.5. Margaret Thatcher and conservatives tried to privatize public education by created parental choice and reorganizing the administrative structure, but with very limited success.

2.3.6. The 1988 Education Reform Act created a more centralized curriculum and system of national assessments.

2.3.7. Schools are very stratified socially and economically.

2.3.8. Comprehensive high schools which prepared students for the workforce have been eliminated.

2.4. France

2.4.1. France has a very elitists educational system.

2.4.2. Only the very elite have the opportunity to move up educationally.

2.4.3. They have schools for the poor and schools for the elite.

2.4.4. The top students go to the grandes e'coles.

2.4.5. The government controls everything down to the classroom.

2.4.6. The France system is very competitive.

2.5. Former Soviet Union

2.5.1. Very centralized system where all students would become productive citizens leaving no one in need.

2.5.2. Being a member of the elite Communist Party had benefits for those children.

2.5.3. This special interest created a stratified system.

2.5.4. The downfall of the Soviet Union was a result of the inequality that was created.

2.5.5. Due to so many nationalities there is very little consensus among the former USSR states.

2.6. Japan

2.6.1. In the 1880's Japan centralized its educational system.

2.6.2. After WWII, Japan focused on the economic purpose to drive educational purposes.

2.6.3. Education is highly competitive.

2.6.4. Very demanding and rigorous college entrance exams.

2.6.5. A double system of education exists.

2.6.6. Students are educated publicly and then pursue the non-formal schools or jukus.

2.6.7. There are 10,000 jukus in Japan

2.7. Germany

2.7.1. German students are sorted at an early age to be tracked into their appropriate careers.

2.7.2. Hauptschule for lower level blue collar work.

2.7.3. Realschule is for lower level white collar and technical positions.

2.7.4. Gymnasium is for the intellectual and high level management positions.

2.7.5. The system is therefore highly stratified and competitive.

2.7.6. The German system is opposite of the U.S. system which is open to all.

2.7.7. Academic achievement is very closely associated with social class.

2.8. Finland

2.8.1. Finland has historically had the highest scores on math, science, and literacy exams.

2.8.2. Racial and social classes have very few discrepancies across test scores in all areas.

2.8.3. All tracking is eliminated.

2.8.4. Almost no standardized testing.

2.8.5. Emphasis is on formative evaluations.

2.8.6. The one standardized test is for college entrance.

2.8.7. Finland has a high regard for teachers and has competitive salaries.

2.8.8. They have a large amount of autonomy.

2.8.9. Teachers have a high degree of job satisfaction.

2.8.10. Teacher retention and shortages are not issues.

2.9. School processes and cultures

2.9.1. Schools are separate social organizations because: They have definitive populations. They have political structures. They represent a multitude of social groups. They are prevailed by the "we feeling". They have their own special culture.

2.9.2. Teachers are in conflict with students. Curriculum v. social goals of students.

2.9.3. Administrators and teachers are in conflict. Structure v. teaching

2.9.4. Communities are in conflict with administration.

2.9.5. Studies show that the principal establishes the goals levels of academic and social expectations and the effectiveness of discipline.

2.9.6. Effecting schools in difficult at its minimum.

2.9.7. Bureaucracies control everything focusing on rules, regulations, and conformity.

2.9.8. Bureaucratic rationality suppress creativity.

2.9.9. Changing a school culture requires patience, skill and good will.

2.9.10. "Schools of Tomorrow...Today Project" in New York City Schools focuses on child-centered teaching.

2.9.11. Changing a school: Conflict is a necessary part of change. New behaviors must be learned. Team building must extend to all parts. Process and content are interrelated.

2.10. Teachers, Teaching and Professionalism

2.10.1. Reality is hard to ignore.

2.10.2. Everyday life is a struggle for survival.

2.10.3. John Goodlad says that teachers must have a major part in reform.

2.10.4. In 2008, 75% of all teachers are women.

2.10.5. 37% have B.S. degrees.

2.10.6. 60% have Master's degrees.

2.10.7. 1% had doctorates.

2.10.8. Average age is 46.

2.10.9. A shortage of teachers exists.

2.10.10. High school seniors indicate that less than 10% will be a teacher.

2.10.11. Requirements according to NCLB: A college degree Full certification Demonstable content knowledge in the subject area. Praxis tests are required for most states. Each state has a different test score acceptance level for certification.

2.10.12. The nature of teaching requires many hats and is very demanding as a result.

2.10.13. The multiple roles are a significant factor in teacher burn out.

2.10.14. Teachers have had to develop all kinds of interpersonal skills. More of an artist than a technical teacher.

2.10.15. Most effective feedback is from students.

2.10.16. Key to teaching is exercising control.

2.10.17. Control procedes teaching. A classroom must have control to be effective learning environment.

2.10.18. Turn each day into a special event.

2.10.19. underqualified teachers

2.10.20. Out of field teachers.

2.10.21. Prevalent in poorer schools.

2.10.22. Poor administrative decisions

2.10.23. Community pressure

2.10.24. Other disciplines are being allowed to become certified teachers such as Teach for America.

2.10.25. Other professions have more autonomy and professional development.

2.10.26. Teachers are expected to be created autonomous individuals but conditions of employment. Leave very little room for autonomy, thoughtfulness and expertise.

2.10.27. The Center for Educational Renewal indicated studies show that causes of teacher burnout and shortages are a result of: A debilitating lack of prestige in teacher education. Lack of program coherence. Separation of theory and practice. A stifling regulated conformity.

2.10.28. To effect teacher professionalism means shred decision making.

2.10.29. Bureaucracy tries to make students conform and expects teachers to create productive individuals.

2.10.30. Teacher are at the center of this conflict.

2.10.31. Standardized generic education limits teachers creativity and risk-taking.

3. Curriculum and Pedagogy

3.1. Pedagogy, and the Transmission of knowledge

3.1.1. -What is taught and how do we teach it?      -Social Influences -Political influences -Societies’ influences -Cultural influences -Special interests

3.1.2. -Historically -Idealists say we should teach the great works of mankind -Conservatist say we should return to a humanist foundation -Teach math, science, reading, history, foreign languages and emphasize the influence of western civilization.

3.1.3. -Conservatist of the 1980’s and 1990’s say we should teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture. P282 -Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive. -Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum

3.1.4. -Social Efficiency became the cornerstone of Progressivism -Conservatist say that social efficiency has diluted the curriculum to the point that it has lost the purpose of transmitting one common culture. -Should the curriculum be flexible to meet all needs or should it be meeting the needs of a diverse population?

3.1.5. -Social meliorists – reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction -Communities reflect what is important to them as a society. -The social class composition of the school and community have determined what is of value in the curriculum. P.285

3.1.6. -Political Influences of the curriculum have determined and set battle lines for domination of what should be taught. -Who shapes the curriculum and determines what is taught? -Should business determine the curriculum? -Should religion determine the curriculum?

3.1.7. -Should the wealthy determine the curriculum? -Which group as the most power to influence curriculum? P. 286 -Private schools are gaining popularity because parents choose schools that support their belief. -Curriculum Influences Chart p. 287

3.1.8. -Other influences on the curriculum -Evolutionists -Creationists -Science and math -Nation at Risk -NCLB -RTT

3.1.9. -Sociology of the curriculum -Society influences the curriculum -Formal curriculum – what is cognitively taught (subjects) -Informal or Hidden curriculum – taught but not obvious to sight -Null curriculum – what is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

3.1.10. -Social order determines the curriculum p. 292 -A capitalist society perpetuates the curriculum for maintaining social order. P. 293 -Multiculturalists influence on curriculum has promoted a diverse needs classroom.p.294 -Conservatists argue that multicultural curriculum had diluted western civilizational values. They say we have melted and lost our western cultural identity.

3.1.11. -Currently, does the curriculum reflect the dominant group of society? -Which group is dominant? -Have colleges been redirected to teach future teachers according to dominant groups? p. 295

3.1.12. -Pedagogic Influences -Mimetic and Transformative approaches to teaching -Mimetic is conservative and says that there is a basic core of knowledge to be learned by all. -Transformative says that students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum. P. 296

3.1.13. -Student centered or teacher centered. P. 298 -Stratification of the Curriculum -Students are tracked and directed to a specific curriculum such as advanced diplomas and vocational diplomas -Tracking begins in elementary and continues through secondary by means of testing. P. 299

3.1.14. -The Effects of the Curriculum -Do students actually learn what is taught? P. 300 -What is learned and what is taught may have a large gap between them. -Closing the gap and how? -Schooling does have an impact on learning. -Effective school characteristics. P 301 -Do all students have the same educational experience even though they attend the same classes.

3.1.15. -How will you teach and what determines how you teach? One word describes or determines your approach. -Maturity includes chronological maturity, social maturity, emotional maturity, culturally- valued maturity, political maturity and _____?_____.

4. Politics of Education

4.1. Purposes of Schooling:

4.1.1. Intellectual Political Social To indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism Cognitive skills in math, reading, science, history, language

4.1.2. Society's ability to transmit knowledge, skills, values.

4.2. Political Perspectives

4.2.1. Conservative Competition is good Every person determines their outcome Every person is responsible for their outcome Economically free markets best serve people Individuals make their own future and determine their own success Individuals make society

4.2.2. Liberal Capitalism and free economies must be kept in check Governments must intervene to insure equality in education and economies Governments must address societal issues Economies unregulated cause unfair distribution of wealth and opportunities Educational opportunities must be equal across the nation, states and communities

4.2.3. Radical Government should be able to provide all citizens with a minimally acceptable standard of living Capitalism and free economy is the root of the educational problems Problems in education and economy are causes of social disorder and social class perpetuation Issues must be addressed at the social class level not the individual

4.2.4. Neo-Liberal

5. History of U.S. Education

5.1. School's/ Education's Responsibility

5.1.1. Schooling has historically been in response to the uncertainty that family, church, or community could not provide the necessary tools needed to meet the needs of a literate person in a democratic society

5.1.2. The school serves as the focal point for addressing societal issues

5.1.3. There is little consensus on motivates for school reform

5.2. Colonial Era

5.2.1. Old Deluder Satan Law 1647

5.2.2. Massachusetts School Law of 1647

5.2.3. Society was highly stratified (have and have-nots)

5.2.4. Colleges were established before the country was created (Harvard 1636, Yale 1701

5.2.5. Wealthy saw education as perpetuating the ruling class, religion, utilitarian, civics.

5.2.6. Franklin saw education to support trades and common man

5.2.7. Jefferson supported public education

5.2.8. Meritocracy provided for higher education

5.2.9. Grammar Schools became present day elementary schools

5.2.10. Dame schools were created for girls

5.2.11. Secondary schools were for boys and the elite

5.2.12. Latin Grammar Schools (Boston)

5.2.13. Education in the South was mainly intended for upper class (plantation owners)

5.3. Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School

5.3.1. The right to vote was restricted to all men except slaves and emotionally disturbed.

5.3.2. Jefferson supported public education to further the success of the U.S.

5.3.3. Horace Mann lobbied to create the first state board of education.

5.3.4. Normal schools were created for teacher education.

5.3.5. Public education was for public stability and social mobility.

5.4. Public Education

5.4.1. Morrill Act est. land grants in each country and state for public education.

5.4.2. Education for women and slaves was limited.

5.4.3. Women were educated for domestic purposes.

5.4.4. Slaves were not educated with the exception of a few northern states that had special schools for African Americans.

5.4.5. Emma Hart Willard, Troy University, 1821.

5.4.6. Mount Holyoke Seminary 1837, women's college had same requirements for women as for men.

5.4.7. The first public university to admit women was the University of Iowa in 1856.

5.5. Urbanization and the Progressive Impetus

5.5.1. Industrial Revolution caused the need for educated workers. Gap between rich and poor widened.

5.5.2. Cities contained enormous amounts of uneducated people thus dividing the social classes even more.

5.5.3. John Dewey, the father of modern education, emphasized the needs of the individual to create a better society.

5.5.4. Schools became the focus of social problems such as hygiene, health, and social skills.

5.6. Progressive Movement

5.6.1. Curriculum supports the needs of the child and thus gives knowledge/insight to human history and promotes impetus for change and betterment of society.

5.6.2. John Dewey-Progressivism

5.6.3. Embryonic Society- miniature community

5.6.4. Dewey's philosophy is the reason we have vocational schools.

5.7. The Committee of Ten

5.7.1. The Committee of Ten was created by the National Education Association which was chaired by Harvard University president, Charles Elliot.

5.7.2. The committee's recommendation for high school in 1918 was: 1. Health 2. Command and fundamental processes 4. Vocation 5. Citizenship

5.7.3. They also est. Carnegie units for graduation and college entrance curriculum.

5.8. Education for All

5.8.1. The Dilema

5.8.2. Four Themes for High School Purposes in 1875. 1. Tension between classical subjects such as Latin and Greek versus science and math, etc. 2. College entrance requirements due to so many disparities in entrance requirements. 3. High School students should be prepared for life not college. 4. All students should follow the same course of study regardless of need for further education. The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education.

5.9. Post World War II

5.9.1. Progressive v. Traditional

5.9.2. Post World War II demands required more technical innovations and focused on social mobility.

5.9.3. The battle; standards of an education versus the education opportunity for all.

5.9.4. The college student movement for civil rights -University of Michigan -University of California at Berkeley -San Francisco State University -Kent State University

5.10. Cycles of Reform Progressive v. Traditional

5.10.1. Equality and Equity

5.10.2. Civil Rights Act 1963

5.10.3. Plessy v. Ferguson of 1896

5.10.4. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education 1954

5.10.5. Desegregation was the main focus

5.10.6. Schools and colleges opened doors for all.

5.10.7. Sputnik and the Space race influence

5.10.8. 1957-1960's emphasis on exellence

5.10.9. Mid 1960's emphasis went back to individual needs due to the Civil Rights Act 1963.

5.10.10. Elementary/Secondary Education Act 1965 provided for special needs students.

5.11. Three Historical Perspectives of U.S. Education

5.11.1. Democratic-Liberal School

5.11.2. Radical-Revisionist School

5.11.3. Conservative School

5.12. Reforms of the Standards Era 1980's to present day

5.12.1. Nation at Risk (Reagan)

5.12.2. Goals 2000 (Clinton)

5.12.3. NCLB (Bush)

5.12.4. RTT (Obama)

5.12.5. Teaching to the Test to Survive

5.12.6. Failing Schools

5.12.7. Charter Schools

5.12.8. Privatization Schools

6. Sociological Perspectives

6.1. Plessy vs. Ferguson

6.2. Brown vs. Board of Education

6.3. Sociology is understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live

6.4. Persell's Model for analyzing school and societies relationship

6.4.1. The societal level includes the most general levels of society such as its political and economic systems, level of development, and system of social stratification.

6.4.2. The institutional level includes family,schools, churches, business, government and media.

6.4.3. The interpersonal includes all of the processes, symbols interactions within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures and rituals.

6.4.4. The intrapsychic which includes the individual thoughts, beliefs, values and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions.

6.5. The relation between schools and society

6.5.1. Schools are agents of cultural social transmission.

6.5.2. Students are taught the values and beliefs of the society for them to think and act like other members of society.

6.5.3. Schools stratify students into tracks by curricular placements which result in how they are successful.

6.5.4. Schools select students for educational mobility.

6.5.5. Theoretical perspectives include; Functional Theories, Conflict Theories, Interactional Theories.

6.5.6. Functional poses that society is best when a consensus rules. Conflict poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups. Interactional poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers.

6.5.7. Conflict- schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend.

6.5.8. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate actual achievement.

6.5.9. Where you go to school can determine your success more than achievement.

6.5.10. Interactional theorist suggest that schools are middle class organizations and lower social classes are at a disadvantage.

6.6. Effects of schooling on individuals

6.6.1. Knowledge and Attitudes                              -The higher the social class of a student the higher level of educational achievement. -Differences between schools is not a significant impact.                                       -Academically oriented schools have higher levels of student achievement.

6.6.2. Employment                                                -More education results in better jobs and opportunities

6.6.3. Education and Mobility                                 -Education is the great equalizer in the status race.                                                              -Where you attend has great impetus.            -Poor and rich people see no effect on their social status as a result of their education attainment.                                     -Competition is not fair. Winners win the exceptions and losers are dropped from the competition.                                                 -Rules are not always fair.

6.6.4. Inside the schools                               -Curriculum is determined by those who want to perpetuate certain values and beliefs.      -Not all students study the same curriculum. -Curriculum determines who goes to college. -Cultural transmission, selecting channeling of opportunity and social mobility and determined at the school level and its curriculum.

6.6.5. Teacher Behavior                                          -Teachers may have as many as 1000 interactions with students on a daily basis. -Teacher expectations directly influence student achievement.                                      -Self fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success.                                              -The more teachers demanded from their students results in higher student self esteem and success.

6.6.6. Student peer groups and alienation               -Rebellious students and violence in schools.      -Nerds, coolness and athletes.                             -Four major types of college students includes;                                                      -Careerists which are middle and upper middle class and do not have a good college experience.                                                  -Intellectuals come from highly educated families, earned academic honors, and are politically motivated.                                  -Strivers come from middle and lower class hard workers and did not have great academic success but had a sense of accomplishment with their degree.                                                          -The unconnected came from all backgrounds and did not participate or achieve any success and were dissatisfied.

6.6.7. Education and Inequality                                   -American society resembles a triangle where most people are at the base.                            -The top 20% in the U.S. possess 75% of the wealth.                                                           -The top 2% of the world possess 80% of the wealth.                                                          -Are social classes perpetuated by society and schools?

6.6.8. Inadequate schools                                          -Affluent schools provide better social mobility than power schools.

6.6.9. Tracking                                                          -Tracking has a different effect on student expectations and success.

6.6.10. De facto segregation                                        -People segregate themselves into their comfort areas.                                                -Racial integration benefits minorities more than the majority.                                          -Integration does not seem to harm the majority.

6.6.11. Gender Biases                                        -Men are still paid more for equivalent jobs.                                                      -Academics are leveling between the sexes.                                                      -Schools are still perpetuating gender inequalities.

6.6.12. The current educational crisis                            -One third of children are at risk of falling. -One fourth of preschool children live in poverty.                                                            -Fifteen million are reared by single mothers. -How can schools help students to be successful members of society when they start out at such a disadvantage?

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Calculating Educational and Life Outcomes

7.1.1. -Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies. -Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences. P. 339

7.2. Social stratification – three systems

7.2.1. -Caste- a persons’ social level is  determined by race or religion. -Estate systems – a persons’ social level is determined by family value and worth. -Class systems – a persons’ worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement. P. 340                    -The lower classes in America have had their ability to overcome decreased because of inflation. -Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class. -Educational achievement is directly related to financial success. P. 340

7.3. Class

7.3.1. -Schools represent the middle and upper class. -Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance. P. 342

7.4. Race

7.4.1. -Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves. -Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans. P. 343

7.5. Gender

7.5.1. -In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment. -Disparities still exist in education and job salaries. P. 343

7.6. -SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational success. -ACT and SAT test have favored the white Americans and upper and middle class students. P. 357                                          -Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA. -Education of Handicapped 1975. -IDEA 1996 -REI – Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming. P. 364

7.7. School Differences and Educational Outcomes

7.7.1. -Do differences in schools contribute to student success? -Does where you live determine your educational success? P. 366

7.8. The Coleman Study 1966

7.8.1. -Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools. P. 367 -As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success. P. 367

7.9. The Coleman Study 1982

7.9.1. -Private school students outperform public school students. -Differences in schools do make a difference. -The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students. P. 368

7.10. Coleman Study 2010 Challenges

7.10.1. Where a student attends school is often related to race and socioeconomic background. The racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater impact on student outcomes than an individual's race or socioeconomic status. P. 369 -Therefore, schools do make a difference.

7.11. School Segregation

7.11.1. -Despite decreases in segregation, racial and ethnic segregation is increasing. -Evidence shows that highly segregated schools have lower achievement levels than integrated schools and minorities do better in integrated schools. P. 372-373

7.12. Educational Attainment and Economic Achievement

7.12.1. -College graduates have higher salaries. P.375 -The amount of education is directly related to life chances. -Life chances are directly related to social level and race; however, schools do have a slight impact. P. 377                             -Education provides social and economic mobility but for the most part perpetuates the social classes. P. 377

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Sociological Explanations of Inequality

8.1.1. -Functionalist Theorists support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed. -Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment. -Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

8.2. Other factors that influence student success are;

8.2.1. -Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student. -School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.

8.3. Multidimensional factors include everything that affects student success.

8.4. Student Centered Explanations p. 421

8.4.1. -Genetic Differences Explanations p. 422 -Cultural Deprivation Explanations p. 423 -Cultural Differences Explanations p. 423-427

8.5. School Centered Explanations

8.5.1. -School Financing p. 428 -Effective Schools p. 431 -Between School Differences p. 433 -Curriculum and Pedagogic -Within School Differences p. 434 -Curriculum and Ability Grouping p. 434-436 -Gender and Schooling p. 436-438

8.6. The BIG Question ? Do Schools Reproduce Inequality? Answer;

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Characteristics of highly effective teachers

9.1.1. A ‘Calling’ for the profession

9.1.2. Professional knowledge

9.1.3. Personal qualities

9.1.4. With-it-ness

9.1.5. Instructional Effectiveness

9.1.6. Good communicator

9.1.7. Street smart

9.1.8. Willing to go the extra mile

9.1.9. Lifelong learner

9.2. Reform in education 1980’s to 2012 p. 512 Two Waves of Attack;

9.2.1. The first was concerned with accountability and achievement.

9.2.2. The second was concerned with the processes of the school.

9.2.3. Top down management from the federal government. P.513

9.3. Federal Involvement

9.3.1. America 2000 p. 514

9.3.2. Goals 2000 p. 515

9.3.3. No Child Left Behind p. 517

9.3.4. Race To The Top p. 518

9.4. Approaches to Reform p. 519

9.4.1. Neo Liberal Approach

9.4.2. Societal And Community Approach

9.5. School Based Reforms p. 520

9.5.1. School Choice

9.5.2. Charter Schools

9.5.3. Tuition Vouchers

9.5.4. Intersectional Choice Plans (public to private)

9.5.5. Intrasectional Choice Plans (any public school in district)

9.5.6. School-Business Partnerships p. 526- 527

9.5.7. Privatization of Schools

9.5.8. School to Work Programs

9.6. Teacher Education Programs p. 528 Three Major Points;

9.6.1. More intellectual demands in education programs

9.6.2. Attract and retain competent teachers

9.6.3. Reorganize educational academic and professional development

9.6.4. Plan p. 5320

9.6.5. Teacher Quality p. 531

9.6.6. The Effective School Movement p. 531

9.6.7. Plan on p. 532

9.6.8. Highly Effective School Characteristics p. 533

9.7. Societal, Community, Economic and Political Reforms p. 535

9.7.1. State Takeovers Pros and Cons p. 536

9.8. School Finance Reforms p. 538

9.8.1. Where you are born or live determines your advantage for a good education.

9.9. Full Service Schools p. 539

9.9.1. Repair and educate the community

9.10. Connecting School Community and Societal Reforms p. 540

9.10.1. A Theory of Educational Problems and Reforms p. 541

9.10.2. Solutions and Proposals p. 543 – 545

9.10.3. Integrative Realm p. 542 - basic skills and knowledge is the focus for school improvement and student achievement.

9.10.4. Developmental Realm – focus is on developing the whole child by having schools become more humane institutions.

9.11. Conclusion:

9.11.1. Do the best with what you have that is within your control.

10. Limits and Promises

10.1. Assessment Issues

10.1.1. Teaching to the Test

10.1.2. Authentic/True Assessments

10.2. Decline of Literacy

10.2.1. Basic Skills of Fundamentals

10.2.2. Teaching to the Test

10.2.3. Pass them on due to age and no place to go

10.2.4. Schools become over-crowded

10.2.5. Raising Academic Standards (for whom)

10.3. Achievement Gap

10.3.1. The differences between what students should know and what they actually know.

10.3.2. Elementary Secondary Education Act 1965

10.3.3. Tried to erase discrepancies in opportunities

10.3.4. NCLB re-established these efforts in 2001

10.3.5. Because of test, teaching gaps have widened

10.3.6. Causes are due to funding, environment, teacher quality, parents, etc..

10.4. The Crisis in Urban Education

10.4.1. Demographic Trends

10.4.2. Social Statification

10.4.3. Socioeconomic/Academic Achievement

10.4.4. Inequalities in School Systems

10.4.5. School Choice is an Issue