Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Schools as Organizations

1.1. Each state is responsible for education.

1.2. Very democratic process of education

1.3. The U.S. Department of Education was created in 1970.

1.4. The Structure of U.S. Schools

1.4.1. 55 million students are educated at the cost of $650 billion.The average elementary school has 450 students. High schools have 856.

1.4.2. Student Composition in Public Schools: 53.5 % are white Of the states, 16 have less than 50% white Ten states have no minorities Large states are heavily multiracial.

1.5. Private Schools

1.5.1. There are approximately 28,200 elementary and secondary private schools in the U.S. Private schools constitute 25% of all schools and educate only 10% of all students.

1.5.2. In 1980’s and 1990’s studies indicate private schools were better learning environments. Thus, school choice has a significant credibility.

1.6. Schools are separate social organizations because they have definitive populations, political structures, represent a multitude of social groups, and have their own special structure.

2. Curriculum and Pedagogy

2.1. What is taught and how we teach it

2.2. Idealists say we should teach the great works of mankind.Conservatist say we should return to a humanist foundation: math, science, reading, history, foreign languages and emphasize the influence of western civilization.

2.2.1. Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive.

2.3. Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productiveDifferent needs for different people was their concern for curriculum .

2.3.1. Social Efficiency became the cornerstone of Progressivism. Conservatist say that social efficiency has diluted the curriculum to the point that it has lost the purpose of transmitting one common culture.

2.4. Social meliorists – reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction. Communities reflect what is important to them as a society. The social class composition of the school and community have determined what is of value in the curriculum.

2.5. Society influences the curriculum:

2.5.1. -Formal curriculum – what is cognitively taught (subjects) -Informal or Hidden curriculum – taught but not obvious to sight (character education) -Null curriculum – what is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

2.5.2. Social order determines the curriculum. Multiculturalists influence on curriculum has promoted a diverse needs classroom. Conservatists argue that multicultural curriculum had diluted western civilizational values. They say we have melted and lost our western cultural identity.

2.6. Mimetic and Transformative approaches to teaching: -Mimetic is conservative and says that there is a basic core of knowledge to be learned by all. -Transformative says that students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum.

2.7. Student centered or teacher centered: Stratifaction of the curriculum

2.7.1. Students are tracked and directed to a specific curriculum such as advanced diplomas and vocational diplomas. Tracking begins in elementary and continues through secondary by means of testing.

3. Educational Inequality

3.1. Sociological Explanations of Inequality: -Functionalist Theorists support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed. -Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment. -Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

3.2. Other factors that influence student success: -Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student. -School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.

3.3. Multidimensional factors include everything that affects student success.

3.4. The BIG question: Do schools reproduce inequality?

4. School Reform

4.1. Characteristics of highly effective teachers: ‘Calling’ for the profession Professional knowledge Personal qualities With-it-ness Instructional Effectiveness Good communicator Street smart Willing to go the extra mile Lifelong learner

4.2. Reform in education:The first was concerned with accountability and achievement.The second was concerned with the processes of the school.

4.3. Federal Involvement: America 2000 Goals 2000 No Child Left Behind Race To The Top

4.4. Intersectional Choice Plans (public to private) Intrasectional Choice Plans (any public school in district)

4.5. Teacher Education Programs: Three Major Points: -More intellectual demands in education programs -Attract and retain competent teachers -Reorganize educational academic and professional development

4.6. - Integrative Realm p. 542 - basic skills and knowledge is the focus for school improvement and student achievement. -Developmental Realm – focus is on developing the whole child by having schools become more humane institutions.

5. Limits and promises

5.1. Achievement Gaps- what students know verses what they should know.

5.1.1. Elementary Secondary Education Act 1965. Tried to erase discrepancies in opportunities. NCLB re-established these efforts in 2001 Because of test, teaching gaps have widened Causes are due to funding, environment, teacher quality, parents, etc…

5.2. Crisis in Urban Education: demographic trends, school choice, inequalities in school systems

5.3. Decline of Literacy: teaching to the test, passing them on due to age, schools over-crowded, raising academic standards

5.4. Assessment issues: teaching to the test, authentic/true assessments

5.5. Four Elements of Foundations of Education: History of Education Philosophy of Education Politics of Education Sociology of Education

6. History of Education

6.1. Equality and Equity: Plessy v. Ferfuson of 1896

6.1.1. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education 1954/ Civil Rights Act 1963. Desegregation was the main focus

6.1.2. College student movements for civil right: U. of Michigan, U. of California at Berkeley. San Francisco Stat U., Kent State U.

6.2. underlying foundation is religious purposes/curriculum was the bible

6.3. Men were educated, women stayed at home

6.3.1. first public university to admit women was University of Iowa in 1856

6.4. education was primarily for the wealthy

6.5. industrial revolution caused the need for educated workers. gap between rich and poor widened/dived social classes

6.5.1. schools became the focus of social problems such as hygiene, health, and social schools

6.6. The Committee of Ten. 1893- established carnegie units for graduation and college entrance curriculum

6.7. Post WWII demands required more technical innovations and focused on social mobility. The battle: standards of an education v. education opportunities for all

6.8. Elem./Secondary Education Act 1965- IDEA Act-1993

6.8.1. Lee v. Macon AL-RTI. special ed/behavioral issues

6.9. Nation at Risk (Reagan) emphasized math and science. Reagan tried to do away with the u.s education department. Goals 2000 (Clinton). NCLB (Bush). RTT (Obama).

6.9.1. Problems: teaching to the test, failing schools, charter schools, and privatization of schools

7. Sociology of Education

7.1. Definition-Understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live

7.2. Persell's model for analyzing school and societies relationship

7.2.1. Institutional: family, schools, churches, business, gov., and media

7.2.2. Interpersonal: the processes, symbols interactions, gestures, and thoughts

7.2.3. Intrapsychic: individual thoughts, beliefs, values, and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions

7.3. Functional poses that society is best when a consensus rules. Conflict poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups. Interactional poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers.

7.3.1. Conflict- schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend

7.4. More education results in better jobs and opportunities.Education is the great equalizer in the status race.

7.5. Self-fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success.

8. Philosophy of Education

8.1. A philosophical approach aids teachers in: Selecting knowledge for the classroom Ordering their classroom Interacting with students, peers , parents and administrators Selecting values for their classroom.

8.1.1. A philosophy aids teachers in understanding: Who they are and Why they do what they do.

8.2. Idealist in education encourage students to search for truth. With truth comes responsibility. Education is a transformation.

8.2.1. Role of the teacher: a role model in the classroom To provoke thought To bring out what is already in their mind

8.3. Realisms' goal of education: understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems

8.3.1. Role of the teacher: Present ideas in a clear and consistent manner Enable students to examine from an objective approach

8.4. Pragmatism: encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome. (scientific inquiry)

8.4.1. Philosophies that were born from Pragmatism Progressivism – John Dewey Social Reconstructionism – George Counts, The Goal of Education Provide students with the knowledge to improve society. Role of the Teacher – facilitator of  learning activities Methods of Instruction – learn individually as well as in groups.

8.4.2. Curriculum – Integrated core subjects, teaching across the curriculum.

8.5. Existentialism and Phenomenology: Perception of the world is based on one’s  ability to make sense of it. Goal of Education – The focus is on the individual, cognitively and affectively. Education liberates the individual from a chaotic world

8.5.1. Role of the Teacher - The reflective teacher enables students to be reflective students. It is a very personal teacher/student relationship. Methods of Instruction – Each student has a different learning style. Help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities and working together. Curriculum – Humanities are heavily emphasized. Students should be exposed to the harsh and good realities of the world.

9. Equality of Opportunity

9.1. Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies.

9.1.1. Caste- a persons’ social level is determined by race or religion. Estate systems – a persons’ social level is determined by family value and worth. Class systems – a persons’ worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement.

9.2. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success.

9.2.1. Class: Schools represent the middle and upper class.Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance.

9.2.2. Race: Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans.

9.2.3. Gender: In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment

9.3. SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational success. ACT and SAT test have favored the white Americans and upper and middle class students.

9.4. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA, Education of Handicapped 1975, IDEA 1996, and REI – Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming.

9.5. The Coleman Study 1966: Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools.

9.5.1. 1982: Private school students outperform public school students.The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students.

9.5.2. 2010: Where a student attends school is often related to race and socioeconomic background. The racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater impact on student outcomes than an individual's race or socioeconomic status.

10. Politics of Education

10.1. Purposes of Schooling: Society's ability to transmit knowledge, skills, and values

10.1.1. Intellectual-Cognitive skills in math, reading, science, history, and language

10.1.2. Political-to introduce people into a particular order of patriotism

10.1.3. Social-to help people be social, productive members of society

10.1.4. Economic-prepare students for their occuoation

10.2. **Individuals make their own future and determine their own success.**

10.3. F.A.P.E- Free Appropriate Public Education