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Food Colour by Mind Map: Food Colour

1. What is color additive?

1.1. Any die, pigment or substance which when added or applied to food, drug or cosmetic is capable to impart color.

2. Two groups of color

2.1. Natural color

2.1.1. Exempt color additives- exempt from certification process

2.1.2. Pigments derived from animal, vegetables and mineral sources

2.1.3. Example Turmeric: Lemon yellow color used: curry and bakery Main coloring pigment: Curcumin- good heat and acid stability but sensitive to light. Paprika Orange red color Used: meats, soups, sauces and snacks. Main coloring pigment: capsanthin, capsorubin and beta carotene. Fairly stable to heat and light Anthocyanins Red at low pH to brownish green at high pH Used: beverages, sugar confectionary, fruit preparations Fairly stable to heat and light. Annato Yellow to red color Used: Dairy product due to water solubility Strong antioxidative property Unstable to light and oxygen

2.1.4. Advantages Oil soluble- well suited for high fat, low moisture foods. Provide transparent color to liquid and oil based products Neutraceutical value- carotenoids and anthocyanins

2.1.5. Disadvantages Instability sensitive to light and heat exposure Not available in certain colors Need higher concentration to obtain the same tint. Objectionable off flavors and off odors Cost

2.2. Synthetic color

2.2.1. Certified color- man-made and have been assigned an FD&c number

2.2.2. Example FD&C blue No 1 FD&C Blue No 2 FD&C Red No 40 FD&C Green No 3 FD&C Yellow No 5 FD&C Yellow No 6 Orange B Citrus No 2

2.3. Advantage

2.3.1. More economical

2.3.2. Easily produce uniform, intense color

2.3.3. Stand up to heat, light, pH and other factors

2.3.4. Do not add off-flavors

2.4. Water soluble dyes

2.4.1. dissolve in water and manufactured as powder, granule or liquid

2.4.2. Application: aqueous beverages, dry mixes, confections, dairy product, noodle products

2.5. Lakes

2.5.1. water soluble FD&C dyes that are combined with insoluble material/ substrate

2.5.2. Base is aluminium hydroxide, aluminiun cation serve as precipitant, color adsorbs onto the surface of aluminium hydroxide.

2.5.3. Impart color by dispersing into the medium

2.5.4. Application Chewing gum Disperse lake into gum matrix provides homogenous coloration Color locked inside the gum matrix, instead of leaching out into the consumer saliva Fats based products

3. Function

3.1. Encourage acceptance by offsetting color loss caused by exposure to light, temperature extremes and moisture

3.2. Correcting natural color variation

3.3. Enhancing naturally weak color

3.4. Provide colorful identity to products

3.5. Supply fun look to kid oriented beverages and candies.

3.6. Indication of taste and flavor quality.