Organelles in a Cell

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Organelles in a Cell by Mind Map: Organelles in a Cell

1. Ribosomes

1.1. Functions

1.1.1. Produces proteins

1.1.1.1. Uses rRNA to get instructions for making proteins

1.2. Where?

1.2.1. Found on both the rough ER and in the cytoplasm

1.2.1.1. In the cytoplasm, ribosomes produce proteins that function in the cytosol.

1.2.1.2. On the rough ER they produce proteins for export or to function with membranes.

2. Mitochondria

2.1. Functions

2.1.1. Power house of the cell

2.1.2. Generates ATP through cellular respiration

2.1.3. home of cellular respiration

2.2. Structure

2.2.1. Double membraned organelle; outer and folded inner (cristae) membrane to increase surface area for membrane bound enzymes that create ATP such as ATP synthase) both are made of phospholipid bilayers

2.2.2. Inside space is fluid filled, called the mitochondrial matrix includes: DNA, ribosomes, enzymes)

2.3. Other Information

2.3.1. Located in both plants and animals

2.3.2. the number of mitochondria per cell is based off amount of aerobic metabolic activity (muscle cells, nerve cells etc)

2.3.3. Size often varies on which type of cell the mitochondria is in

3. Peroxisomes

3.1. What are they?

3.1.1. Similar to a lysosome. Also is a digestive enzyme sac.

3.1.2. Peroxisomes are found in both plants and animals

3.2. Functions

3.2.1. Breakdown fatty acids into sugars to be used throughout the cell for functions such as energy production.

3.2.2. Detoxifies cell of alcohol or other poisons. So more peroxisomes can be found in your liver cells.

3.2.3. They produce H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) as a byproduct of the breakdown of larger molecules. The peroxisome can turn this into H2O and O2 which the cell is able to use.

4. Smooth ER

4.1. Functions and Structure

4.1.1. Membrane production; ER membrane expands and breaks off which serves as the production of membrane for other parts of the cell

4.1.2. Responsible for synthesizing: lipids, hormones, steroids

4.1.3. Size of the ER solely depends on the function of the cell in the body. Some cells don't even have ER like blood cells.

4.2. Processes

4.2.1. Detox of the cell

4.2.2. Hydrolysis EX: glycogen into glucose (in liver)

5. Lysosomes

5.1. Functions

5.1.1. Digest free food/ macromolecules used for energy in the cytosol

5.1.2. Clean up and recycle within the cell; destroy damaged organelles and break them down to return molecules within them to the cell for reuse

5.1.3. They are able to fuse with food vacuoles to digest food to give to the cell to use for energy

5.1.4. Sometimes lysosomes are actually used to kill certain cells in stages of development. for example in tadpoles they destroy tail cells as the tadpole grows legs.

5.2. Other Information

5.2.1. They are only found in animals

5.2.2. They work best at a pH of 5. Lysosomal enzymes are sensitive to pH because they are made of proteins, pH affects structure of proteins and without proper structure, they can not carry out their job.

6. Vacuoles

6.1. Funtions

6.1.1. Moving materials

6.1.2. Storage: stocking proteins or inorganic ions, depositing byproducts, holding pigment

6.1.3. It is a selective membrane and controls what goes in and out.

6.2. Examples

6.2.1. Food Vacuoles

6.2.1.1. Are able to through phagocytosis and fuse with lysosomes which help digest large molecules

6.2.2. Contractile Vacuoles

6.2.2.1. They live in freshwater protists. They pump excess H2O out of cell.

6.3. Qualities

6.3.1. Vary in size

6.3.2. Some contain digestive enzymes that carry out functions similar to lysosomes

6.3.3. Some have poison stored to protect them from herbivores

7. Cytoskeleton

7.1. Purpose

7.1.1. Structural support

7.1.2. Helps cell locomotion

7.1.3. Connects organelles to other parts of the cell to add support.

7.2. Structural Components

7.2.1. Composed of microtubules and microfilaments

7.2.1.1. Microtubules are thick tube like structures made up of proteins called tubulin. They not only help with structure but also with cell division by pulling chromosomes apart.

7.2.1.2. Microfilaments are thinner long structural parts of the cytoskeleton. In the cell they are composed mainly of actin. These help move the cell and organelles as needed.

8. Cytoplasm

8.1. Functions

8.1.1. Suspends each organelle of the cell to fight gravity.

8.1.2. Provides help to the structure of the cell itself

8.1.3. Contains other molecules like enzymes, proteins, sugars and fatty acids to help with cell functions.

8.2. Structure

8.2.1. It is a gel-like substance so it not quite a liquid which contributes to suspension of organelles.

9. Golgi Apparatus

9.1. Functions

9.1.1. Receives molecules, often simple, and then combines them into complex molecules.

9.1.2. Packages complex molecules into vesicles for transport. Sometimes they are secretory vesicles headed for outside the cell.

9.1.3. Enzymes and membranes are synthesized by rough ER and moved to the Golgi Body to be processed and used.

9.2. Structure

9.2.1. Made up of folded membranes surrounding the fluid where the molecules are processed and changed.

10. Rough ER

10.1. Function

10.1.1. The rough ER produces molecules like proteins, glycoproteins, and hormones.

10.1.2. Some products of the ER are mostly completed and sent in a vesicle to the golgi apparatus to be completed.

10.2. Structure

10.2.1. The rough ER is a collection of membrane and sacs that aid production and transportation  and is coated with ribosomes

10.2.2. There is a lot of rough ER in pancreas and liver cells.

10.2.3. Size depends on the location and cell type

11. Nucleus

11.1. Function

11.1.1. Control center of the cell: eating, production, transport etc.

11.1.2. Protects DNA

11.1.3. mRNA production point; copying of DNA

11.1.4. Controls reproduction of every cell.

11.2. Structure

11.2.1. Nuclear envelope is similar to the cell membrane. However there are pores in the nuclear envelope to allow the passage of larger macromolecules and different kinds of RNA.

11.2.2. Inside the nucleus there is the nucleolus and chromatin (composed of DNA RNA and proteins)

12. Cell Membrane

12.1. Function

12.1.1. Separates the rest of the cell from outside environment in animal cells, in plant cells the cell wall helps with this job.

12.1.2. Controls what comes in and out of the cell

12.1.2.1. Active Diffusion

12.1.2.1.1. Endocytosis and exocytosis along with phagocytosis and pinocytosis occur when very large molecules are engulfed into the cell with the use of a membrane vesicle or let out of the cell with a membrane binding vesicle.

12.1.2.1.2. Protein Pumps

12.1.2.1.3. Disrupts equalibrium created by passive diffusion.

12.1.2.2. Passive Diffusion

12.1.2.2.1. Osmosis

12.1.2.2.2. Facilitated Diffusion

12.1.2.2.3. Simple Diffusion

12.1.3. Receives and recognizes signals from other cells with protein molecules embedded in the membrane.

12.2. Structure

12.2.1. Semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer

12.2.2. Diffusion assistants such as protein channels, protein pumps and other embedded molecules such as glycoproteins and glycolipids

12.2.3. On the inner surface of the cell, the cytoskeleton is attached in various locations for support.

13. Cell wall

13.1. Function and Structure

13.1.1. Made of cellulose, a structural carbohydrate not able to be dissolved in water

13.1.2. Is there for protection and structure

13.1.3. It is only found in plant cells

13.1.4. In most plants the cell wall is slightly flexible allowing the plant to bend but not break.

13.1.5. There are holes in the cell wall so that it isn't a solid fortress. This allows nutrients to come in and waste to go out. It also lets water flow in and out.

14. Centrioles

14.1. Structure

14.1.1. Small sets of microtubules that are organized in a specific way.

14.1.2. Once they meet each other they come together at 90 degrees.

14.2. Role in Reproduction

14.2.1. When it is time for cell reproduction the centrioles line up on either side of the nucleus and are connected by thin microfilaments.  The split chromosomes migrate toward each centriole.

15. Nucleolus

15.1. Location

15.1.1. The nucleolus is located within the nucleus of the cell.

15.1.2. Only exists in eukaryotic organisms.

15.2. Function

15.2.1. The purpose of the nucleolus is to transcribe DNA into RNA which is then added to protiens to make different ribosomal units that are exported to the ER or cytosol.

15.2.2. It is a safe place for initial transcribing so the DNA does not have to leave the nucleus.

16. Chloroplasts

16.1. Funtion

16.1.1. Stores chlorophyll

16.1.2. Home of the process of Photosynthesis (the Calvin Cycle and the light reactions)

16.1.2.1. Where solar energy is converted into energy and energy is used to produce glucose

16.2. Inner Structure

16.2.1. Thylakoids- membrane sacs where ATP is produced (light reactions). Also has a double membrane with membrane proteins to hold the pigment chlorophyll in place.

16.2.2. Stroma- internal fluid filled space of the chloroplasts, including DNA ribosomes and enzymes (Calvin Cycle)

16.2.3. Grana- stacks of thylakoids

16.3. Where?

16.3.1. Only found in plant cells

16.3.2. Within the plant, chloroplasts are found in the green parts of the plant. Ex: leaves, stems etc.

16.3.3. 5 um large on average