EDUC 5015Q: Educational Psychology

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EDUC 5015Q: Educational Psychology by Mind Map: EDUC 5015Q: Educational Psychology

1. Week 1: Planning For the Upcoming School Year

1.1. Reflective Practice: "By reflective practitioner we mean a teacher who chooses to analyze and reflect on his or her practice and to asses the effects of his or her teaching in order to become a more effective educator" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 7)

1.2. Seth Goding: Stop Stealing Dreams

1.2.1. I find it interesting that the end of our course deals with Standardized Testing seeing as we started by touching upon this topic in this video.

1.2.2. Principle: "Measuring experience instead of test scores"

1.3. Schwab's Four Commonplaces 1. Teacher 2. Curriculum 3. Student 4. Classroom

1.4. Planning for the year: Get to know a bit about the students before the start by reading their OSRs, and, if possible, speaking with former teachers or other school staff that have had contact with them. Review, and perhaps make small notes of, curriculum guidelines in order to tailor lessons in a more effective way.

1.5. Annette's tip: "I must first consider the knowledge that my students bring to school [i.e. funds of knowledge] and then design and deliver curricula to expand and develop their knowledge by connecting it to new learning" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 24)

2. Week 2: Considering Child and Adolescent Development

2.1. "cognitive skills and concepts learned in the early school years are critical for all other later achievements and expectations" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 45)

2.1.1. Growth Mindset

2.1.1.1. F.A.I.L.- First Attempt in Learning

2.1.1.2. Fixed Mindset vs. Growth Mindset

2.1.1.2.1. It is important to teach students that mistakes are okay so long as we can learn from them. The Computational Thinking course this semester proved that utilizing tangibles such as Scratch, Scratch JR., and Sphero is an excellent way to foster a Growth Mindset. Problems/mistakes (bugs) and solutions (de-bugging) is essential to running code.

2.1.1.3. Growth Mindset and F.A.I.L. helps to build self-esteem!

2.2. Jean Piaget

2.2.1. Schemes/Schemas: "The brain is constantly combining, arranging, recombining, and rearranging what it knows" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 49).

2.2.2. Adaptation: "When the brain encounters new information, its patterning and organizing abilities instinctively and immediately classify the new information into something that is either similar or dissimilar to an existing scheme" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 49)

2.2.2.1. The 'Low floor, high ceiling, wide walls' approach, in my opinion, functions on this principle. Starting by introducing a concept/pattern that is easy to understand and work with, and then building upon it. As the brain learns the new information, it adapts it and adds to the foundation learned at the start.

2.3. Lev Vygotsky

2.3.1. Zone of Proximal Development: "the range of tasks that a child cannot perform independently but can perform with the help of others" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 55)

2.3.1.1. Scaffolding: "a dynamic teaching process that focuses on active instructional support while considering, relating to, and interacting with students' responses to instruction

3. Week 3: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

3.1. Rita Pierson: Every Kid Needs a Champion

3.1.1. In Rita Pierson's powerful message she states the importance of connecting and developing relationships with students. I wholeheartedly agree with this as the teachers that impacted me always took an interest in both my learning and my life. Getting to know our students will help us figure out how to effectively teach them and help them reach their full potential.

3.1.1.1. A quote from KPJR Films' Paper Tigers website, "risk factors-behavioral as well as psychological-can be offset by the presence of one dependable and caring adult [...] More often than not, that stable, caring adult is a teacher."

3.1.1.2. "Develop caring, supportive relationships with and among students" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 78)

3.1.2. Positive Behaviour Support

3.2. Dynamic Classroom Management

3.2.1. "By proactively engaging all students in the design of explicit rules and routines, teachers promote classroom-wide student self control and commitment to the rules and impede student impulsivity" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 79)

3.2.1.1. The following link takes you to part of my Poster assignment for EDUC 5017Q. In this section I used the principles of DCM to create a set of rules that include four non-negotiable ones, and three rules created in collaboration with the students (the outline of the three is meant to represent a sticker to signify that they can be changed).

3.2.1.2. Annette's tip: "Annette does not want her students to get the sense that the rules, rewards, and consequences are rigid or fixed. She wants them to understand that, within reason, things can be changed or modified to better suit the conditions of their classroom" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 91)

3.2.2. Ten Tips for Classroom Management, an excellent resource I plan to refer to frequently throughout my career.

4. Week 4: Making Instructional Decisions

4.1. "At its core, education is about two predominant teacher functions: teaching and then assessing whether or not students have learned. The symbiotic interrelationships between teaching, learning, and assessment cannot be overstated, but this critical interplay only occurs when assessment and instruction are planned and designed together, not separately or sequentially" (Edmunds & Edmunds 117)

4.1.1. Backward Design Breakdown: 1. Learning Objective (Curriculum Guided) 2. Assessment Format (Exit Ticket, One-on-One Interview) 3. Teaching Objective (Unit) 4. Teaching Method (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p.119)

4.2. Benjamin Bloom

4.2.1. Classification of Cognitive Learning Objectives (Bloom's Taxonomy) 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation

4.3. Rick Stiggins

4.3.1. Taxonomy of Achievement Targets 1. Knowledge 2. Reasoning 3. Skills 4. Products 5. Attitudes and Dispositions

4.4. Pedagogical Approaches

4.4.1. Inquiry Based Learning

4.4.1.1. Teacher as a guiding force that steers student curiosity towards curriculum expectations through careful observation and minimal interjection.

4.4.1.2. Chiarotto, L. (2011). Natural Curiosity: Building Children’s Understanding of the World Through Environmental Inquiry/A Resource for Teachers

4.4.1.2.1. An excellent resource for Inquiry Based Learning. The Chapter titled: Taking the Leap contains testimonials of teachers utilizing, and finding great success with, the Inquiry Based Model of Teaching within the subject of Science.

4.4.2. Direct Instruction: "a systematic instructional method that is often portrayed as teaching small amounts of information and providing lots of practice so that students can master basic facts and skills" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 132).

4.4.3. Three Part Lesson Plan: 1. Getting Started (Activate Prior Knowledge) 2. Working on It (Main Lesson, Student-Centered, Prompting Questions) 3. Reflect and Connect (Lesson Congregation, Gallery Walk)

4.4.4. Cognitive Credit Card

4.4.4.1. I find the CCC to be extremely useful and cannot wait to utilize them in my class. Creating the Card with students so that they can use it as quick references or clarifications during assessments will help students relieve stress, which will lead to better performance and further fostering of a Growth Mindset.

5. Week 5: Assessing Student Progress

5.1. "The best educational interplay between good teaching, excellent learning, and appropriate assessment principles are used a priori to guide instruction" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 158)

5.1.1. The "Backwards Design" of Assessment: 1. Start with the curriculum 2. Form assessment will take 3. What has to be taught for the students to understand the material covered on the assessment 4. Instructional method to teach the content

5.1.2. Purposes of Assessment

5.1.2.1. Diagnostic Assessment: "completed before instruction to determine instructional starting points and to refine and adjust teaching methods" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 159)

5.1.2.1.1. 1. Take a test, one that you tell the students will not be scored, at the start of the year. 2. Create a survey for the students. 3. Group students, have them teach you one thing they found interesting in the previous year, or previous unit.

5.1.2.2. Formative Assessment

5.1.2.2.1. Type I: "teachers assess pr get a sense of student understandings by constantly asking students curricular questions as lessons are taught and by closely monitoring students' performance" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 159)

5.1.2.2.2. Type II: "teachers use assigned seatwork, homework, class participation, or short quizzes to obtain accumulating grades during units of instruction" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 159)

5.1.2.3. Summative assessment: "takes place after instruction [...] The main purpose [...] is to indicate how well students have learned the material" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 161)

5.1.2.3.1. 1. Unit test 2. End of the unit culminating task 3. End of unit presentation 4. End of unit essay

6. Week 6: Individual Differences- Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

6.1. Carroll's Hierarchical Model of Intelligence:"At the top of the hierarchy, there is an overarching general intellectual ability. This ability is facilitated by eight secondary abilities that carry out different classes of cognitive tasks" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 193)

6.1.1. General Intelligence

6.1.1.1. Fluid Intelligence Crystallized Intelligence General Memory and Learning Broad Visual Perception Broad Auditory Perception Broad Retrieval Capacity Broad Cognitive Speediness Processing Speed

6.2. Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences: "every student has a unique cognitive profile that does not necessarily match with the highly verbal-linguistic and logical-mathematical emphasis that dominates most schools" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 194)

6.2.1. Note: Hence the need for differentiated instruction.

6.2.2. The Theory of MI: 1. Linguistic 2. Logical-Mathematical 3. Spatial 4. Musical 5. Bodily-kinesthetic 6. Interpersonal 7. Intrapersonal 9. Naturalistic

6.2.2.1. My Intelligences: Linguistic, Bodily-kinesthetic, Intrapersonal

6.3. Ken Robinson

6.3.1. I've looked at a few ken Robinson videos in a number of my classes. The one part that stands out to me in this video is the story of Gillian Lynne.

6.3.2. Speaking of Gillian Lynne, her success came about as a result of her mother recognizing her intelligence at an early age. In my life, I've never had a teacher that 'tried to kill my creativity' or divert me from my hopes in dreams-more often than not, they were always willing to help. It was my parents who generally raised objections to my future goals.

6.4. High and Low Exceptionalities

6.4.1. Inclusion: "This modern perspective on special education advocates that all students with exceptionalities should be educated within regular classrooms to the greatest extent possible" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 202)

6.4.1.1. “students with exceptionalities who are included in regular classroom settings do not experience serious social difficulties beyond those that would be seen in any other setting” (Bennet, 2009, p. 3)

6.4.1.2. “Positive results have been found in terms of an increase in advocacy and more tolerant attitudes on the part of the regular students in inclusive settings” (p. 3)

6.4.1.3. In the debate on whether or not students with exceptionalities should be included in the classroom or segregated, I fall on the side of inclusion.

7. Week 7: Socio-Cultural Considerations

7.1. "openly encouraging and supporting student diversity is in keeping with the democratic roots that underpin all of the fundamental tenets of public education" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 245)

7.1.1. Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

7.1.1.1. We've looked at this video in a number of courses, most prominently in the International Education stream. As teachers in Canada, we will undoubtedly work with a high percentage of culturally diverse learners. We always need to make sure that we get to know all of our students as best as possible, even those that cannot speak a word of English, in order to find out how to effectively teach them. At the same time, we need to make sure that the classroom is a safe place for our students to celebrate their cultures and differences.

7.2. Culturally Responsive Practice: "The teacher should know the child's family and community and understand how particular influences from these contexts may, or may not, need to be considered" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 250)

7.2.1. Note: Depending on the size of the class, it may be really difficult for the teacher to familiarize him or herself with the students' cultures. The teacher, however, can have students present on their culture to educate both the teacher and their peers about their culture.

7.2.2. Of important note is that teachers need "to examine their own cultural assumptions to understand how these concepts shape starting points for practice" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 251)

7.3. Socio-Economic Status: "SES has by far the greatest impact on scholastic achievement" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 254)

7.3.1. Remember that education can be the great equalizer for students from lower SES. But we have to be effective teachers and develop Growth Mindsets: students who hear success stories are more likely to think, 'I can do it' rather than 'I can't do it'" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 256)

7.4. Baumrind's Classification on Parenting Style

7.4.1. Authoritarian Parenting: "attempts to shape, control, and measure children's behaviours against fairly rigid standards" (Emunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 255)

7.4.1.1. Related to lower grades.

7.4.2. Permissive Parenting: "openly tolerant and accepting of nearly all children's actions" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 255)

7.4.3. Authoritative Parenting: "constant series of balancing acts: between expectation demands and encouragement to achieve, between establishing rules and meting out discipline, between fostering student independence and providing parental influence, and between open communication and direct advice" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 255)

8. Week 8: Standardized Achievement Tests

8.1. "a test that (a) contains the same questions for all test takers; (b) is administered to all individuals in the same fashion, under the same conditions, and within a specified time ; and (c) is always scored in a systematic and uniform manner" (Edmunds & Edmunds, 2015, p. 271)

8.1.1. Arguments For

8.1.1.1. Good way of comparing schools and students

8.1.1.2. Results are a good way to assess the effectiveness of the education system

8.1.1.3. Assesses accountability (on the part of the school/teacher)

8.1.1.4. Determines which schools are achieving curriculum goals

8.1.2. Arguments Against

8.1.2.1. Teachers start to 'teach to the test'

8.1.2.2. Test does not recognize students' cultural or linguistic differences

8.1.2.3. Leads to student disengagement

8.1.2.4. "The tests do not adequately assess 21st Century skills such as creativity, technological ability, problem solving,or critical thinking skills" (The Facts on Education)

8.1.2.5. Generally stresses out both students and teachers.

8.1.3. I stand on the against side. Looking over these last few weeks and putting the main ideas on here, I realize that standardized tests basically go against everything that we have learned thus far. MI, Differentiated Instruction, Multiple Assessments, getting to know our students, recognizing their differences and figuring out what teaching method will positively impact them the most,  these are some of the take-aways for me from this course. Standardized tests adhere to none of these.