Week 2d: Distance education in Brazil – development and challenges (all activities to A10)

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Week 2d: Distance education in Brazil – development and challenges (all activities to A10) by Mind Map: Week 2d: Distance education in Brazil – development and challenges (all activities to A10)

1. differences in education

1.1. Litto (2008) points out that at the University of South Queensland in Australia distance learning is totally automated and web-based; whereas in North America learners study via distance learning in the same city and institution in which they are already enrolled in the conventional mode of education.

1.1.1. Litto, F. (2008) ‘Public policy and distance education in Brazil’ in Evans, T., Haughey, M. and Murphy, D. (eds) International Handbook of Distance Education, London, Elsevier.

1.1.2. link

2. long history of distance education

2.1. since 1920s

3. in order to offer e-learning

3.1. institutions need to submit a module project to Brazillian ministry of education

3.1.1. Ministry site

3.1.2. READ

3.1.3. summary from OU

3.2. reference document entitled Distance Education: Quality Benchmarks for the Higher Education Sector (Referenciais de Qualidade para Educação Superior a Distância)

3.3. HOW IS E-Learning sorted out in CHILE

4. A9: Identifying the factors underpinning the practices

4.1. In the context of the vignette, how do these practices compare with more conventional face-to-face learning?

4.1.1. flexibility - family life 3 days a week

4.1.1.1. why not have this every day of the week. why go in at all...

4.2. How does the Pitágoras University vignette illustrate the benchmarks applied in practice?

4.2.1. multi-disciplinary team

4.3. Which quality benchmarks embedded in their module design and teaching approach can you identify?

4.3.1. short courses focusing on specific business themes

4.3.1.1. reflects course material stipulation that suggests need for material that takes account of student situations.

4.3.1.1.1. modular?

4.3.2. what about student created content???

4.3.2.1. need to find ref on this from old TMAs

5. Benchmarks

6. A10 - Reflecting upon the differences

6.1. Litto (2008)

6.2. Can you think of a better way to define distance learning or find a definition that you would consider more appropriate? Post your answer in your tutorial group forum.

6.3. ‘The considered opinion of many leaders of distance education in Brazil is that the new law treats distance learning “as a shadow of conventional learning”’ (p.681).

6.3.1. Why, in your experience, do some critics have this opinion?

6.3.1.1. over-regulation

6.3.1.2. earlier prohibition (which was over turned) on recognising distance degrees.

6.3.1.3. however public universities have the exclusive right to recognise distance degrees

6.3.1.3.1. ignores equality before the law

6.3.1.3.2. implicit presumption of quality of distance degree

6.3.1.4. due to worry that people will game the system and take advantage

6.3.1.4.1. fear issue???

6.3.2. How can criticisms of distance education be answered, in your own context?

6.3.2.1. GOOD QUESTION....

6.4. Litto argues that: ‘“Over-legislating” stifles initiative and creativity. […] The time has come for those who set public policy regarding education in Brazil to make a fresh start, transferring the question of setting public policy into the hands of civil society’ (p.682).

6.4.1. How applicable is this claim to your own situation?

6.4.1.1. review the TICs at Mineduc and see what issues come up that inform the answer to this question

6.4.1.2. over-legislating issue - present in many areas in latin countries due to use of codes for law rather than common law as is common in UK / USA....

6.4.1.3. not sure - need to research this

6.4.2. What might be the advantages of a more open system, in which the institutions can do as they like?

6.4.2.1. allowing students to take their exams anywhere

6.4.2.1.1. opening up access

6.4.2.2. innovation in the use of just in time learning

6.4.2.2.1. development of further courses using pedagogies that are suited to the learners' needs not proscribed