Case Study: East Coast Park Singapore

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Case Study: East Coast Park Singapore by Mind Map: Case Study: East Coast Park Singapore

1. How Does Singapore use its coastal area?

1.1. Recreational Activities

1.1.1. Sports

1.1.1.1. Swimming

1.1.1.2. Jogging

1.1.1.3. Cycling

1.1.1.4. Kayaking

1.1.1.5. Power Boating

1.1.1.6. Wind Surfing

1.1.1.7. Cable Skiing

1.1.1.8. Sailing

1.1.2. Kite-flying

1.1.3. Fishing

1.2. Relax and appreciate the scenery

1.3. Coastal reservoirs

1.4. Port facilities

1.5. Military facilities

2. What measures have been taken to protect the coast: soft engineering and hard engineering methods

2.1. Soft engineering

2.1.1. Large drains

2.1.1.1. Acted as groynes

2.1.1.1.1. Allowed sediment deposition on the updrift side.

2.1.2. Other Restoration works

2.1.2.1. Bay realignment

2.1.2.2. Beach nourishment

2.1.2.3. Removal and replacement of old Breakwaters and Sea walls

2.1.2.4. Added sand for waves to form bays

2.1.2.5. Constant maintenance

2.2. Hard engineering

2.2.1. Seawalls

2.2.1.1. Built to protect reclaimed land

2.2.2. Breakwalls

2.2.2.1. Used to protect the coast and create beaches

2.2.2.2. Placed at various sections along the coastline

2.2.2.3. Acted as headlands

2.2.2.3.1. Allowed deposition to be collected and beaches to form

2.2.2.4. Gabion breakwaters

2.2.2.4.1. Constructed at the foreshore

2.2.2.5. Riprap breakwaters

2.3. Other methods

2.3.1. Marking off nature reserves

2.3.1.1. Ensures coasts are unaffected by human activities

2.3.2. Educating the public

2.3.2.1. Done through signs or exhibitions showing the appropriate ways to use coastal areas

2.3.3. Establishing partnerships with various organisations

2.3.3.1. Partner with organisations with expertise of managing coastal areas

2.3.3.1.1. Allows more effective protection efforts to be put in place

3. Why is coastal management and protection so crucial to Singapore?

3.1. The Circumference of Singapore is also its coastline.

3.1.1. The whole population of Singapore lives within 1000km of the coastline

3.1.1.1. Vulnerable to any changes in the coastline

3.1.2. Most of its land is at a height of less than 15m above sea level

3.1.2.1. Extreme high tides will cause flooding especially when there is a rise in sea levels

3.2. Singapore has a generally flat coast

3.3. Important resource

3.3.1. Recreational activities

3.3.2. Port facilities

3.3.3. Coastal reservoirs

3.3.4. Military facilities

3.4. Ensure sustainability for the future

4. How effective have these measures been?

4.1. Rip rap breakwaters

4.1.1. Sank and could not protect the coat

4.2. Restoration works

4.2.1. Deposited sediments replace eroded sediments

4.2.2. Many bays have reached an equilibrium J shape

4.2.3. More erosion may occur during high tides

4.3. Land reclamation from the Johor Shoal

4.3.1. Parts of it sunk and eroded away