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Evolution by Mind Map: Evolution

1. Speciation

1.1. Forms of speciation

1.1.1. Allopatric speciation 1. Geographic isolation 2. different selection pressures 3. reproductive isolation

1.1.2. sympatric speciation no geographic isolation speciation by polyploidy habitat differentiation sexual selection requires reproductive barrier

1.1.3. adaptive radiation annidation E.g. Darwins Finches Preconditions little competition allopatric speciation occured before different niches available

1.2. factors

1.2.1. hybridity Barriers postzygotic prezygotic

1.2.2. isolation habitat temporal behavioral E.g. singing birds mechanical gametic

2. population

2.1. ideal population

2.1.1. extremely large population size

2.1.2. no gene flow

2.1.3. no mutations

2.1.4. random mating / panmixia

2.1.5. no natural selection

2.1.6. no change of allele frequncies no development

2.2. real population

2.2.1. not ideal

2.3. gene pool changes by

2.3.1. gene drift founder effect migration of a part of the population bottleneck effect reduction of the population effects stronger in smaller populations allele frequency can change randomly can lead to loss of variation can cause harmful alleles to become fixed

2.3.2. gene flow exchange between other gene pools source of new varation for one gene pool reduces differences between gene pools immigration emigration

2.3.3. geographical barriers

2.3.4. selection mate selection natural selection

2.3.5. variations

3. Variation

3.1. mutation

3.1.1. types chromosomal mutation gene mutation genomic mutation

3.1.2. characteristics spontaneously undirected (no prediction) no targeted change low in animals and plants high in microorgansims and viruses often negative could have no effect -> neutral

3.2. sexual recombination

3.2.1. origin of genetic variation

3.2.2. crossing over of chromosomes in meiosis

3.2.3. independent assortment of chromosomes in meiosis

3.3. predisposition/preadaptaion

3.3.1. changed before it was benificial

4. reproduction

4.1. sexual

4.1.1. meisos 2 divisions daughter cells haploid 4 daughter cells daughter cells not identical with crossing over produces gametes not identical

4.2. asexual

4.2.1. mitosis 1 devision daughter cells diploid no crossing over identical to parent 2 daughter cells daughter cells are identical growth and replacement

5. classification of organisms

5.1. biological species concept

5.1.1. belong to the same species if actually or potentially producing fertile ofspring

5.2. morphological species concept

5.2.1. identical by morphological (anatomical) criteria

5.2.2. used for asexual species or fossils

5.3. phylogenetic trees

5.3.1. show time and amount of change

5.4. cladogram

5.4.1. guess of relateness by looking at common traits

5.4.2. does not take time and amount of change into account

5.5. Taxonomic classification

5.5.1. 1. Domain (e.g. Eukarya)

5.5.2. 2. Kingdom (e.g. Animalia)

5.5.3. 3. Phylum

5.5.4. 4. Class

5.5.5. 5. Order

5.5.6. 6. Family

5.5.7. 7. Genus

5.5.8. 8. Species

5.6. binominal classification

5.6.1. E.g. Homo sapiens

6. Theories

6.1. Darwin

6.1.1. natural selection inheritance of new variation overproduction varition

6.1.2. Modern synthesis theory refined/developed in light of modern biology

6.2. Lamarck

6.2.1. life evolves as environment changes

6.2.2. 1. "use and disuse" body parts used extensively become larger and stronger other body parts deteriorate

6.2.3. 2. inheritance of acquired characteristics

6.2.4. organisms have an innate drive to become more complex

7. Evidence

7.1. Fossils

7.1.1. transitonal fossils archaeopteryx

7.1.2. living fossils platypus

7.2. molecular biology

7.3. immunological Methods

7.4. similarities

7.4.1. Comparitive cytology

7.4.2. substances & processes

7.4.3. proteins E.g. Insulin, cytochrome c, hemoglobin

7.4.4. DNA comparison base sequences DNA hybridisation

7.4.5. Comparative embryology

7.4.6. Biogeographical evidence continental drift

7.4.7. novel forms / evo-devo Hox genes Evolution works with what is already present multifunctionality & redundancy modularity

7.4.8. rudimentary organs E.g.

8. Comparative anatomy

8.1. related and similar looking

8.1.1. homology criterion criterion of position criterion of continuity criterion of specific quality examples pentadactyl limb

8.2. not closely related but similar looking

8.2.1. homoplasy parallel evolution differences to convergent evolution convergent evolution analogy dolphin - shark

9. selection

9.1. Modes

9.1.1. disruptive

9.1.2. directional

9.1.3. stabilizing

9.2. factors

9.2.1. abiotic humidity temperature wind salinity aridity light conditions poisons

9.2.2. biotic intraspecific selection sexual selection interspecific selection mimesis mimicry camouflage warning signals heterozygous advantage Predation Competition Diseases

10. Basics

10.1. factors

10.1.1. mutation and recombination

10.1.2. selection

10.1.3. gene flow

10.1.4. genetic drift

10.1.5. isolation

10.2. Descent with modification

10.3. coevolution

10.3.1. complementary evolution of closely associated organisms

10.4. coadaptation

10.4.1. correlated adaptation so that mutual relationships can persist

10.4.2. increase the effectiveness of the relationship