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Unit 2: Methods by Mind Map: Unit 2: Methods

1. Naturalistic Observations

1.1. Observing with no interaction with participants

1.2. Most realistic form of behavior

1.2.1. Eliminates most confounding variables

2. Case Studies

2.1. Full, detailed pictures of one participant or a small group of participants

2.2. Do not typically apply to general populations

3. Statistics

3.1. Descriptive Statistics

3.1.1. Describes a set of data

3.1.2. Frequency Distribution Frequency Polygons Histograms

3.1.3. Measures of Central Tendency Mean Average Can be distorted Median Middle of the Data Mode Most Frequent

3.1.4. Measures of Variability Range Distance Between Highest and Lowest Scores Variance Standard Deviation Squared How much the values vary from the mean Standard Deviation Square Root of Variance Average value of the difference of the value from the mean

3.1.5. Normal Curve Approximately Normally Distributed Data 68-95-99 Bell Curve

3.2. Correlations

3.2.1. Relationships between two variables Positive Correlation Both Increasing Negative Correlation Both Decreasing

3.2.2. Correlation Coefficient Strength of Correlation 1 In Between 0 In Between -1

3.2.3. Scatter Plots Line of Best Fit Regression Line Minimizes Distance of all Points from the line

3.3. Inferential Statistics

3.3.1. Whether or not findings can be applied to the larger population from which the sample was selected

3.3.2. Sampling Error Extent to which the sample differs from the population

3.3.3. Chi Squared Test

3.3.4. T-Test

3.3.5. Z-Test

3.3.6. T-Interval

3.3.7. Z-Interval

3.3.8. Statistically Significant Alpha value .05 p value less than .05

4. APA Ethical Guidelines

4.1. Institutional Review Board's Permission

4.1.1. Animal Research Studies must have clear scientific purpose Research must answer a specific, important scientific question Animals chosen must be best-suited to answer the question at hand They must care for and house animals in a humane way Must acquire animal subjects legally Must design experimental procedures that employ the least amount of suffering feasible

4.1.2. Human Research No Coercion Informed Consent Anonymity or Confidentiality No Significant Risk Debriefing

5. Experimental Method

5.1. Laboratory Experiments

5.2. Field Experiments

5.3. Causal Relationship

5.3.1. Independent Variable

5.3.2. Dependent Variable

5.3.3. Confounding Variable Hawthorne Effect Social Desirability Order Effects Participant-Relevant Confounding Variable Caused by decisions of the participant Non-Random Assignment Situation-Relevant Confounding Variable Caused by the situation the participant is in Experimenter Bias

5.3.4. Control Variable Double Blind Method Placebo Method Counterbalancing

5.4. Random Assigment

5.4.1. Group Matching

5.4.2. Numerical Assignment Random Selection of Numbers

5.4.3. Seperate Groups Experimental Group Control Group

6. Correlational Method

6.1. Prove some type of correlation

6.1.1. Positive Correlation Up and Up

6.1.2. Negative Correlation Up and Down

6.1.3. No Correlation

6.2. Correlation is NOT causation

6.3. Survey Method

6.3.1. Question

6.3.2. Population

6.3.3. Two or more variables

6.3.4. Types of Bias Wording Effect Response Bias Non-Response Bias Convenience Bias Undercoverage Bias Selective Bias

6.4. Scatterplots