# Unit 2: Methods

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Unit 2: Methods

## 1. Experimental Method

### 1.3. Causal Relationship

1.3.1. Independent Variable

1.3.2. Dependent Variable

1.3.3. Confounding Variable

1.3.3.1. Hawthorne Effect

1.3.3.2. Social Desirability

1.3.3.3. Order Effects

1.3.3.4. Participant-Relevant Confounding Variable

1.3.3.4.1. Caused by decisions of the participant

1.3.3.4.2. Non-Random Assignment

1.3.3.5. Situation-Relevant Confounding Variable

1.3.3.5.1. Caused by the situation the participant is in

1.3.3.5.2. Experimenter Bias

1.3.4. Control Variable

1.3.4.1. Double Blind Method

1.3.4.2. Placebo Method

1.3.4.3. Counterbalancing

### 1.4. Random Assigment

1.4.1. Group Matching

1.4.2. Numerical Assignment

1.4.2.1. Random Selection of Numbers

1.4.3. Seperate Groups

1.4.3.1. Experimental Group

1.4.3.2. Control Group

## 2. Correlational Method

### 2.1. Prove some type of correlation

2.1.1. Positive Correlation

2.1.1.1. Up and Up

2.1.2. Negative Correlation

2.1.2.1. Up and Down

2.1.3. No Correlation

### 2.3. Survey Method

2.3.1. Question

2.3.2. Population

2.3.3. Two or more variables

2.3.4. Types of Bias

2.3.4.1. Wording Effect

2.3.4.2. Response Bias

2.3.4.3. Non-Response Bias

2.3.4.4. Convenience Bias

2.3.4.5. Undercoverage Bias

2.3.4.6. Selective Bias

## 3. Naturalistic Observations

### 3.2. Most realistic form of behavior

3.2.1. Eliminates most confounding variables

## 5. Statistics

### 5.1. Descriptive Statistics

5.1.1. Describes a set of data

5.1.2. Frequency Distribution

5.1.2.1. Frequency Polygons

5.1.2.2. Histograms

5.1.3. Measures of Central Tendency

5.1.3.1. Mean

5.1.3.1.1. Average

5.1.3.1.2. Can be distorted

5.1.3.2. Median

5.1.3.2.1. Middle of the Data

5.1.3.3. Mode

5.1.3.3.1. Most Frequent

5.1.4. Measures of Variability

5.1.4.1. Range

5.1.4.1.1. Distance Between Highest and Lowest Scores

5.1.4.2. Variance

5.1.4.2.1. Standard Deviation Squared

5.1.4.2.2. How much the values vary from the mean

5.1.4.3. Standard Deviation

5.1.4.3.1. Square Root of Variance

5.1.4.3.2. Average value of the difference of the value from the mean

5.1.5. Normal Curve

5.1.5.1. Approximately Normally Distributed Data

5.1.5.1.1. 68-95-99

5.1.5.1.2. Bell Curve

### 5.2. Correlations

5.2.1. Relationships between two variables

5.2.1.1. Positive Correlation

5.2.1.1.1. Both Increasing

5.2.1.2. Negative Correlation

5.2.1.2.1. Both Decreasing

5.2.2. Correlation Coefficient

5.2.2.1. Strength of Correlation

5.2.2.1.1. 1

5.2.2.1.2. In Between

5.2.2.1.3. 0

5.2.2.1.4. In Between

5.2.2.1.5. -1

5.2.3. Scatter Plots

5.2.3.1. Line of Best Fit

5.2.3.2. Regression Line

5.2.3.2.1. Minimizes Distance of all Points from the line

### 5.3. Inferential Statistics

5.3.1. Whether or not findings can be applied to the larger population from which the sample was selected

5.3.2. Sampling Error

5.3.2.1. Extent to which the sample differs from the population

5.3.3. Chi Squared Test

5.3.4. T-Test

5.3.5. Z-Test

5.3.6. T-Interval

5.3.7. Z-Interval

5.3.8. Statistically Significant

5.3.8.1. Alpha value .05

5.3.8.1.1. p value less than .05

## 6. APA Ethical Guidelines

### 6.1. Institutional Review Board's Permission

6.1.1. Animal Research

6.1.1.1. Studies must have clear scientific purpose

6.1.1.2. Research must answer a specific, important scientific question

6.1.1.3. Animals chosen must be best-suited to answer the question at hand

6.1.1.4. They must care for and house animals in a humane way

6.1.1.5. Must acquire animal subjects legally

6.1.1.6. Must design experimental procedures that employ the least amount of suffering feasible

6.1.2. Human Research

6.1.2.1. No Coercion

6.1.2.2. Informed Consent

6.1.2.3. Anonymity or Confidentiality

6.1.2.4. No Significant Risk

6.1.2.5. Debriefing