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History: China by Mind Map: History: China
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History: China

sino-Japanese war

Japan (surrendered on 14th August 1945

Kwantung Army, Japanese army posted in Machuria to guard South Machuria railway and other Japanese interests, Manchukuo, Kwantung Army seized Manchuria in 1931, Refused to when the government ordered them to retreat, They put the former emproer Puyi on throne, who was really just a puppy of the Japanese, Reverted to China in 1945, South Manchuria Railway, Japan won this in the Russo Japanese war, Kwantung army was sent there to guard this railway, Mukden Incident 1931, Junior officers in the army blew up a section of the railway, Blamed the Chinese and seized Manchuria, They did this because the government back in Tokyo restrained from seizing the territory, It was acting increasingly out of authorization from the government, Assasinated Zhou Zuolin (1928)

Ichigo Offensive, Majorly successful offensive, Japan troops became outstreched, GMD blamed for their incompetence both by USA and its own people

Rape of Nanking, A priod of six weeks after Japan ccupied Nanking, Mass rape and murder, around 300,000 were killed

Three All Campaign, response to CCP's HUndred Regiment's battle, 杀光,烧光,砍光, Made the Japanese infamous not just among the Chinese but also the foreign powers

Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Clash between Chinese and Japanese troops, Became Japan's excuse for occupying Beijing, Chiang Kaishek refused to give in, so a full scale war broke out between China and Japan


GMD, Marco Polo Brdige Incident, Ichigo Offensive

CCP, Liberation Areas, countrysides where CCP controlled, Red Army, CCP‘s army, which was run differently as the soldiers and the officers receives the same pay, Guerrilla Warfare, aimed at wearing down the enemy instead of taking hold of any territories, Hundred Regiments Battle, 8th route army, In order to prove to China that they are doing something, Involved attacks on railway lines and mines, Great casualties, but initially successful

Joint forces, First United Front (1923-1927), Second United Front (1937-1944), alience of CCP with GMD to fight the Japanese, Nominally led by Jiang Jieshi, in practice, GMD operated seperated, Was forced in the Xian Incidence

ordinary citizens, May 4 Movement, Boycott, Led by students and city people, Protest to the Treaty of Vassailes because Japanese had the right to owned Shandong, This drove Japanese troops out of Shandong and allowed Communists to set up a base there

Other foreign powers

Atomic Bombs, Hiroshima 6th August 1945, Nagasaki 9th Auguest 1945, Hastened Japanese surrender

Lytton Commission, An organisation set up by League of Nation, Took some action in 1933, Japan reacted by walking out of League of Nations and no more actions were taken

USSR Declares War on Japan, 8th August 1945, Handed the captured Japanese weapons to CCP instead of GMD, helped them to win the civil war

Civil War

Chinese Communist Party

1. formed by uniting a number of Marxist study groups; 2. first meeting held in a girl's school; 3. Mao was there but not yet a leading member, Zhou Enlai, This person, 28 Bolsheviks and Otto Braun dominated CCP until 1934, they were heavily influeced by the comintern and the Russian model of Communism, Zunyi Conference, Zhou Enlai led the way during the Long March, He declared that Mao's tactics are better than Otto Braun's, making Mao the official leader of the party, Helped negotiating the Second United Front with Zhang Xuelang, Zhu De, Led the Jiangxi Soviet with Mao, Brilliant general who was a founder of the Red Army, Close associate to Mao, helped him greatly to come to power, Credited for the successful guerilla tactics, Ransacked during 'Cultural Revolution' and became the "black general", The Long March 1934-1935, Retreat by CCP to Yan'an, Here the communists established a government (from 1936-1947), Took land from landlord to distribute among the poor, allowed everyone above the age of 16 to vote, Promoted education, Promoted equality between men and women, marched over 600 miles, only around 25% made it, Grassland, Xiang River, A major battle between retreating CCP and GMD, CCP just broke out from Jiangxi Soviet, They lost 45,000 soldiers (more than half), Snowy mountains, Dadu River (May 25th 1935), the CCP had to cross the only shattered bridge to run away from the GDM attacks, This provided a heroist image for the Red Army, The bridge only had iron poles left and was on fire, GMD was firing on the otherside, Many records say this is not true, Marked CCP union and spread Communist ideas, Marked the leadership of Mao, Jiangxi Soviet, 1928-1934=communist base, led by Mao Zedong and Zhu De, Carried out a number of reforms to demonstrate how communists would rule, Wiped out peasant's debt, took land from the rich and gave to the poor, encouraged peasants to elect comittees to govern their own villages, fought for women's rights, outlawed selling women, banned arranged marriages, Mao became 'head of the state' (not head of the party), 'Futian Incident' - a bloody purge organised by Mao aiming to clear out all the GMD in the area, Extermination campagins, Communist Bases, Areas out of GMD's control during GMD's decade, Battles were fought continuously in these areas, E.g.: Jiangxi and then Yan'an

Comintern, An international allience of communist parties, Run by Moscow, In1923 persuaded GMD to join forces with CCP (first united front)


Sun Zhongshan, formed Guo Mindang, Often called "nationalist" in Engish, Three People's Principles, Nationalism, Republicanism, People's livelihood (socialism)

Jiang Jieshi, Succeeded Sun Zhongshan, Sutdied abroad in USSR, took up his dislikes for Communists there, Ruled as a dictator, Northern Expedition, Extermination campaigns, Five in total, Exterminating the Jiangxi Soviet, The GMD is in advantage comparing the number of soldiers and the equipments, CCP used guerilla tactics and managed to defeat the GMD, However, this left the villagers in Jiangxi the victims, as they cannot protect their land when using guerilla tactics, 5th extermination campaign, Blockhouse strategy, surrounded Jiangxi with concrete blockhouse, cut off CCP supplies, forced to abandon Jiangxi Soviet, Shanghai Massacre 1927, Marked the end of the First United Front, With help from Shanghai gangsters, murdered every communist he could find, From this point till 1936 is the civil war

Zhang Xueliang, Xian Incident (December 1936), Jiang Jieshi kidnapped and handed to the Communists, Second United front negotiated, Also means continued independency of warloards, propoganda victory for the Communists, Son of warloard, joined force with Guo Mindang after his father was killed by the Japanese, Believes that Jiang Jieshi should fight the Japanese, instead of CCP


Foreign Concessions

extended foreign embassies

This was resented by many

extraterritoriality, the right for foreigners not to obey Chinese laws but their own legislations

Wuchang uprising

October 10th 1911

Marked the end of Qing dynasty

Chongqing, The capital after Wuhan where GMD based, Japan could not reach there, Nor can the GMD get enough supplies


Officers trained in Whampoa Military Academy

Money came from Comintern


Generals and military governers who took over large areas between 1917 to 1928

Many were bad rulers and people were exploited under them