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1960 to 1968 by Mind Map: 1960  to 1968

1. SS.912.A.6.14

1.1. Analyze causes, course and consequences of the Vietnam War.

1.2. Ho Chi Minh

1.3. Vietcong

1.4. Guerrilla warfare

1.5. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

1.6. Hawks vs Doves

1.7. Antiwar protests

1.8. "Credibility Gap"

1.9. LBJ

2. SS.912.A.7.3

3. SS.912.A.7.10

3.1. Analyze the significance of the Vietnam War on the government and the people of the United States

3.2. Background to the Conflict

3.3. American Involvement

3.4. "Domino Theory"

3.5. My Lai

3.6. Home Front Discontent

3.7. Anti War Movement

4. JFK

4.1. The 1960's: "The Times They are a-Changin"

4.2. Student will be able to examine the main concepts of the 1960's, and be able to understand the core relationship between U.S. Domestic and Foreign policies and its consequences.

4.2.1. JFK and New Frontier I. Kennedy’s “New Frontier” Spirit In 1960, young, energetic John F. Kennedy was elected as president of the United States—the youngest man ever elected to that office. The 1960s would bring a sexual revolution, a civil rights revolution, the emergence of a “youth culture,” a devastating war in Vietnam, and the beginnings of a feminist revolution. JFK delivered a stirring inaugural address (“Ask not, what your country can do for you…”), and he also assembled a very young cabinet, including his brother, Robert Kennedy, as attorney general. Robert Kennedy tried to recast the priorities of the FBI, but was resisted by J. Edgar Hoover. Early on, JFK proposed the Peace Corps, an army of idealist and mostly youthful volunteers to bring American skills to underdeveloped countries. JFK Inaugural Address The New Frontier at Home Kennedy’s social program was known as the New Frontier, but conservative Democrats and Republicans threatened to kill many of its reforms. JFK did expand the House Rules Committee, but his program didn’t expand quickly, as medical and education bills remained stalled in Congress. JFK also had to keep a lid on inflation and maintain a good economy. However, almost immediately into his term, steel management announced great price increases, igniting the fury of the president, but JFK also earned fiery attacks by big business against the New Frontier. Kennedy’s tax-cut bill chose to stimulate the economy through price-cutting. Foreign Flare-Ups and “Flexible Response” There were many world problems at this time: The African Congo got its independence from Belgium in 1960 and then erupted into violence, but the United Nations sent a peacekeeping force. Laos, freed of its French overlords in 1954, was being threatened by communism, but at the Geneva Conference of 1962, peace was shakily imposed. Defense Secretary McNamara pushed a strategy of “flexible response,” which developed an array of military options that could match the gravity of whatever crises came to hand. One of these was the Green Berets, AKA, the “Special Forces”.

4.3. Method of Instruction

4.3.1. Students will explore the cause and effect relationships between JFK, LBJ, Vietnam, and the Anti-War Movement.

4.4. Students will review the entire Mindmeister 1960s to 1968 project.

4.4.1. DO NOW: Students will be given 10 minutes to job down 6 most important focus points of the presentation. After the ten minutes we will job down on the board student results

4.5. Students will be broken down into four groups and each group will be given a specific focus topic to evaluate. JFK, LBJ, Vietnam War, and the Anti-War Movement.

4.5.1. The group will assign tasks to the group members. i.e. researchers, recorders, presenters, project coordinator, and project designers. Each group will be given 45 minutes to review the section and evaluate the videos and notes. The group must evaluate the information and format it into a clear and concise story. If any information has been omitted by Mr. Klasner, which can be identified and verified can be included in the presentation. The group must show how it is aligned to the standards in this collaborative project. Remember to review the video, notes and other resources. You may choose outside resources but you must cite to back up your evidence.

4.6. Method of Evaluation

4.6.1. What were the components that were missing from the overall picture of 1960 to 1968? How did these missing components add to the overall historical events in the United States at that time of period? Did these components achieve their goals and effect the events after the Democratic National Convention 1968?

4.7. Research US History Standard SS.912.A.7.3 and why was it omitted from this presentation? What words would you place under this standard and why? Keep it to a minimum like the other standards.

5. Resources

5.1. Materials

5.2. Videos

5.2.1. Watch the video and you decide if these are the 10 defining moments of the 1960s in the United States. If not then what would you replace and why? Give evidence. Can you identify how these 10 defining moments correlate with the vocabulary words in the standards objectives?

5.3. PowerPoint Of The 1960s

5.4. Timeline of the 1960s

6. Anti-War Movement

6.1. Defintion

6.1.1. An anti-war movement (also antiwar) is a social movement, usually in opposition to US decision to escalate armed conflict with troops in Vietnam. This conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. The term can also refer to pacifism, which is the opposition to all use of military force during conflicts. Though the first American protests against U.S. intervention in Vietnam took place in 1963, the antiwar movement did not begin in earnest until nearly two years later, when President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered massive U.S. military intervention and the sustained bombing of North Vietnam. The movement against U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began small–among peace activists and leftist intellectuals on college campuses–but gained national prominence in 1965, after the United States began bombing North Vietnam in earnest.

6.1.2. A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, including ban guns, and often linked to the goal of achieving world peace. Although the first mass demonstration took place in December 1964 gathering more than 600 people in San Francisco, the anti-war movements and protests did not began in earnest until March 1965 when the U.S began regular bombing North Vietnam (Operation Rolling Thunder). The Free Speech Movement (FSM) was a college campus phenomenon inspired first by the struggle for civil rights and later fueled by opposition to the Vietnam War. The Free Speech Movement began in 1964, when students at the University of California, Berkeley protested a ban on on-campus political activities.

6.2. Democaratic National Convention 1968

6.3. Meanwhile, on the streets of Chicago, several thousand anti-war protesters gathered to show their support for McCarthy and the U.S. withdrawal of troops from Vietnam. Chicago Mayor Richard Daley deployed 12,000 police officers and called in another 15,000 state and federal officers to contain the protesters. The situation then rapidly spiraled out of control, with the policemen severely beating and gassing the demonstrators, as well as newsmen and doctors who had come to help. The ensuing riot, known as the “Battle of Michigan Avenue,” was caught on television, and sparked a large-scale change in American society. For the first time, many Americans came out in virulent opposition to the Vietnam War, which they had begun to feel was pointless and wrongheaded. No longer would people give the national government unrestrained power to pursue its Cold War policies at the expense of the safety of U.S. citizens.

7. Objectives

8. Vietnam War

8.1. Vietnam War Facts Dates 1954-1973 Location South Vietnam North Vietnam Cambodia Laos Result North Vietnamese Troop Strength South Vietnam: 850,00 United States: 540,000 South Korea: 50,000 Others: 80,000 plus Casualties South Vietnam: 200,000 – 400,000 civilians 170,000-220,000 military Over 1 million wounded United States: 58,200 dead 300,000 wounded North Vietnam: 50,000 plus civilian dead 400,000-1 million military dead. Over 500,000 wounded

8.1.1. TET OFFENSIVE 1968 TET OFFENSIVE On January 31, 1968, some 70,000 North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces launched the Tet Offensive (named for the lunar new year holiday called Tet), a coordinated series of fierce attacks on more than 100 cities and towns in South Vietnam. General Vo Nguyen Giap, leader of the Communist People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN), planned the offensive in an attempt both to foment rebellion among the South Vietnamese population and encourage the United States to scale back its support of the Saigon regime. Though U.S. and South Vietnamese forces managed to hold off the Communist attacks, news coverage of the offensive (including the lengthy Battle of Hue) shocked and dismayed the American public and further eroded support for the war effort. Despite heavy casualties, North Vietnam achieved a strategic victory with the Tet Offensive, as the attacks marked a turning point in the Vietnam War and the beginning of the slow, painful American withdrawal from the region. Goals of the TET Offensive

8.1.2. Causes of the Vietnam War The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were fighting to reunify Vietnam. They viewed the conflict as a colonial war and a continuation of the First Indochina War against forces from France and later on the U.S. ... Beginning in 1950, American military advisors arrived in what was then French Indochina. The struggle between French colonial forces and native Vietnamese citizens supported by Chinese communists was one of the root causes of the Vietnam War. United States forces entered the conflict in support of the French in order to fight communism. When the French left, the Americans fought the war alone.

9. LBJ

9.1. The LBJ Brand on the Presidency Lyndon Johnson had been a senator in the 1940s and 50s, his idol was Franklin D. Roosevelt, and he could manipulate Congress very well (through his in-your-face “Johnson treatment”); also, he was very vain and egotistical. As a president, LBJ went from conservative to liberal, helping pass a Civil Rights Act of 1964, which banned all racial discrimination in most private facilities open to the public, including theaters, hospitals, and restaurants. Also created was the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), which was aimed at eliminating discriminatory hiring. Johnson’s program was dubbed the “Great Society,” and it reflected its New Deal inspirations. Public support for the program was aroused by Michael Harrington’s The Other America, which revealed that over 20% of American suffered in poverty. Johnson Battles Goldwater in 1964 In 1964, LBJ was opposed by Republican Arizona senator Barry Goldwater who attacked the federal income tax, the Social Security system, the Tennessee Valley Authority, civil rights legislation, the nuclear test-ban treaty, and the Great Society. However, Johnson used the Tonkin Gulf Incident, in which North Vietnamese ships allegedly fired on American ships, to attack (at least partially) Vietnam, and he also got approval for the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, which gave him a virtual blank check on what he could do in affairs in Vietnam. But on election day, Johnson won a huge landslide over Goldwater to stay president.

9.1.1. The Great Society Congress Johnson’s win was also coupled by sweeping Democratic wins that enabled him to pass his Great Society programs. Congress doubled the appropriation on the Office of Economic Opportunity to $2 billion and granted more than $1 billion to refurbish Appalachia, which had been stagnant. Johnson also created the Department of Transportation and the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), headed by Robert C. Weaver, the first black cabinet secretary in the United States’ history. LBJ also wanted aid to education, medical care for the elderly and indigent, immigration reform, and a new voting rights bill. Johnson gave money to students, not schools, thus avoiding the separation of church and state by not technically giving money to Christian schools. In 1965, new programs called Medicare and Medicaid were installed, which gave certain rights to the elderly and the needy in terms of medicine and health maintenance. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 abolished the “national origin” quota and doubled the number of immigrants allowed to enter the U.S. annually, up to 290,000. An antipoverty program called Project Head Start improved the performance of the underprivileged in education. It was “pre-school” for the poor. Battling for Black Rights Johnson’s Voting Rights Act of 1965 attacked racial discrimination at the polls by outlawing literacy tests and sending voting registrars to the polls. The 24th Amendment eliminated poll taxes, and in the “freedom summer” of 1964, both blacks and white students joined to combat discrimination and racism. However, in June of 1964, a black and two white civil rights workers were found murdered, and 21 white Mississippians were arrested for the murders, but the all-white jury refused to convict the suspects. Also, an integrated “Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party” was denied its seat. Early in 1965, Martin Luther King, Jr. resumed a voter-registration campaign in Selma, Alabama, but was assaulted with tear gas by state troopers. LBJ’s responded by calling for America to overcome bigotry, racism, and discrimination.