Cognitive Development Theories: Piaget vs. Vygotsky

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Cognitive Development Theories: Piaget vs. Vygotsky by Mind Map: Cognitive Development Theories:  Piaget vs. Vygotsky

1. Examples in the classroom

1.1. Piaget - Cognitive Development: An elementary teacher might use the following strategies to enhance learning. 1) (Concrete Experience) Show a film to introduce a new topic attaching a concrete experience to an abstract concept. 2) (Social Interaction) After the students listen to a presentation on a challenging subject, the teacher asks the students to turn and talk with a partner about what they learned, using social interactions to deepen learning. 3) (Advanced Development) While studying attributes of shapes, the teacher may challenge the students to consider the hierarchy of quadrilaterals, asking "Is a square a rhombus?"

1.2. Vygotsky - Cognitive Development An elementary teacher might use the following strategies to enhance learning. 1) (Authentic Tasks) Students mastering the skill of putting data into a bar graph might construct an authentic survey to develop real data to graph in order to create a meaningful reason for learning this skill. 2) (Scaffolding) While students are learning how to divide fraction, a chart outlining the steps for the process is created for students to use during practice. As students master the skill the chart may be removed or placed in an area for those still in need of the support. 3) (Social Interaction) Students completing a writing assignment may work with a peer editor using a rubric to help improve their work.

2. Main ideas

2.1. Piaget emphasizes: 1) the individual, and 2) concrete experiences.

2.1.1. Key concepts: 1) Equilibrium 2) Assimilation 3) Accommodation 4) Schemes 5) Stages of development (Eggen and Kauchak, 2015, p. 66)

2.2. Vygotsky emphasizes: 1) the role of culture, 2) social interaction, and 3) language.

2.2.1. Key concepts: 1) Zone of proximal development 2) Scaffolding 3) Internalization 4) Cognitive tools 5) Private speech (Eggen and Kauchak, 2015, p. 66)

3. Applying theories to 21st century teaching and learning

3.1. Piaget: "1) Provide concrete experiences that represent abstract ideas. 2) Help students link the concrete representations to the abstract idea. 3) Use social interaction to help students advance and refine their understanding. 4) Design learning experiences as developmental bridges to more advanced stages of development.” (Eggen and Kauchak, 2015, p. 54)

3.2. Vygotsky: "1) Embed learning activities in culturally authentic contexts. 2) Involve students in social interactions, and encourage them to use language to describe their developing understanding. 3) Create learning activities that are in learners’ zones of proximal development. 4) Provide instructional scaffolding to assist learning and development.” (Eggen and Kauchak, 2015, p. 61)

4. References

4.1. Eggen, P. and Kauchak, D. (2015). Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms (10th edition). Boston: Pearson.

5. Differences

5.1. The development of knowledge and thinking

5.1.1. Piaget: thinking develops as a result of an individual's own experiences and their attempt to make sense of the experiences. The desire to add stability to the environment. If an experience doesn't make sense within our existing schemes, we modify our schemes/thinking. We change our own thining.

5.1.2. Vygotsky: thinking develops as a result of social interactions with "more knowledgeable others" (Eggen and Kauchak, 2015, p. 58). "More knowledgeable others" can be adults or peers. Others help to change our thinking.

5.2. The role of culture

5.2.1. Piaget: children develop in the same way, regardless of culture. Biology determines how a child develops.

5.2.2. Vygotsky: the way a child develops is dependent on cultural context. Biology plays a role, but culture also determines how a child develops.

5.3. Social influence and development

5.3.1. Piaget: Social experience, interacting with other people, influences development through the disruption and reestablishment of the equilibrium. Reestablishment of the equilibrium can be achieved through the process of accommodation.

5.3.2. Vygotsky: Development can only occur through the interaction of a child with a peer who has higher knowledge. Peers with higher knowledge use cognitive tools, shaped by culture, during interaction with a child.

5.4. Language and development

5.4.1. Piaget: Language serves as a milestone which is gradually improved upon through the four stages of development. Language development is improved upon through individual experiences.

5.4.2. Vygotsky: Language is the key to development. Language guarantees the learner direct access to knowledge from others, and allows for self-regulation.

6. Similarities

6.1. Piaget and Vygotsky both believed that social influence was important for development.

6.2. Both believed children play an active role in developing their schema.

6.3. Learners actively construct knowledge, rather than passively receive knowledge.

6.3.1. Therefore, active learning strategies are generally more successful than lecture as a teaching method.