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Alkanes by Mind Map: Alkanes
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Alkanes

Structure

Bonds

C-C

Saturated

Contain no C=C

cannot undergo addition rxn

Formula

C2 H2n+2

Chemical properties

unreactive generally

alkenes compared soot lesser

C% alkenes than less C%

Reactions

Source

fractional distilation crude oil

catalytic cracking crude oil

Combustion

complete, sufficient O2, Carbon dioxide +water vapour, non luminous flame

incomplete, insufficient O2, Carbon monoxide + soot + unburnt hydrocarbons + water vapour, luminous flame

Uses, Fuel

Catalytic Cracking

Alkane(large)--(cracking)-->smaller alkene+smaller alkane/hydrogen, Hydrogen produced, fuel, reducing agent, haber process

uses, convert large hydrocarbon into smaller hydrocarbon, less flammable to more flamable, fuel, reducing agent, haber process

conditions, 450°C, SiO2/broken porous pot or Al2O3

Free Radical substitution

Free radicles, chlorine..etc

alkanes react with chlorine (under UV) chloro alkanes + hydrogen chloride

condition, UV light

random, no. /sequence atoms substituted cannot be predicted