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Alkanes by Mind Map: Alkanes

1. Structure

1.1. Bonds

1.1.1. C-C

1.2. Saturated

1.2.1. Contain no C=C

1.2.2. cannot undergo addition rxn

1.3. Formula

1.3.1. C2 H2n+2

2. Chemical properties

2.1. unreactive generally

2.2. alkenes compared soot lesser

2.3. C% alkenes than less C%

3. Reactions

3.1. Source

3.1.1. fractional distilation crude oil

3.1.2. catalytic cracking crude oil

3.2. Combustion

3.2.1. complete sufficient O2 Carbon dioxide +water vapour non luminous flame

3.2.2. incomplete insufficient O2 Carbon monoxide + soot + unburnt hydrocarbons + water vapour luminous flame

3.2.3. Uses Fuel

3.3. Catalytic Cracking

3.3.1. Alkane(large)--(cracking)-->smaller alkene+smaller alkane/hydrogen Hydrogen produced fuel reducing agent haber process

3.3.2. uses convert large hydrocarbon into smaller hydrocarbon less flammable to more flamable fuel reducing agent haber process

3.3.3. conditions 450°C, SiO2/broken porous pot or Al2O3

3.4. Free Radical substitution

3.4.1. Free radicles chlorine..etc

3.4.2. alkanes react with chlorine (under UV) chloro alkanes + hydrogen chloride

3.4.3. condition UV light

3.4.4. random no. /sequence atoms substituted cannot be predicted