The Berlin Wall

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The Berlin Wall by Mind Map: The Berlin Wall

1. May 1945 Soviet Red Army Captures Berlin In May 1945, the Soviet Army was the first to reach the city of Berlin, the final stronghold of Nazi Germany. This marked the defeat of Nazi Germany, and the end of the war in Europe. Berlin was divided into four sectors; French, Soviet, British and American.

2. July 30, 1946 Germany Divided In July 1946, Germany was formally divided between the Allies. Britain, France and the United States worked together to establish an independent government. In the east, the Soviets had control.

3. October 29, 1946 Special Passport Required Special passports and permissions were required to travel between East and West Berlin by the fall of 1946. People could, however, still travel relatively freely into both East Germany and East Berlin and from East Germany.

4. June 23, 1948 East German Currency Established A separate currency was established in East Germany in June 1948. This immediately preceded a number of significant and aggressive changes to the relations between East and West.

5. June 24, 1948 Berlin Blockade Begins On June 24, 1948, the Berlin Blockade began. The Soviets disallowed supplies and goods from entering West Berlin. In response, the United States airlifted supplies into West Berlin for a period of several months.

6. May 26, 1952 East German Borders Closed The East German borders were formally closed, disallowing access from the West in May 1952. This preceded the building of the Berlin Wall, but continues a progressive pattern of isolation.

7. December 11, 1957 Travel for East Germans Disallowed By December 11, 1957, East Germans could no longer leave the country to go into West Germany. They could, with permissions, still move between East and West Berlin in a limited capacity.

8. August 13, 1961 Border between East and West Berlin Closed, First Wall Erected In August 1961, the border between East and West Berlin was closed. A barbed wire fence was put into place, almost immediately followed by a heavier concrete wall. The wall was guarded, and anyone attempting to escape shot and killed.

9. June 12, 1987 U.S. President Reagan Called for the Dismantling of the Wall In June 1987, President Reagan called on Mikhail Gorbachev, leader of the Soviet Union, to dismantle the Berlin Wall. Gorbachev had been making gradual changes to open up the Soviet Union and allow additional freedoms. In addition, other Soviet-controlled countries, including Hungary, had already opened their borders around this time.

10. November 9, 1989 Access to West Berlin Opened Access to West Berlin opened on November 9, 1989. East and West Berliners began to dismantle the Berlin Wall, tearing it down with simple hand tools and shouting, in a quote from U.S. President Kennedy, "Ich bin ein Berliner," or I am a Berliner.

11. December 22, 1989 Brandenburg Gate Opened The Brandenburg Gate, closed for so many years, was formally opened in December 1989. The West German Chancellor, Helmut Kohl, walked through the open gate and greeted the Prime Minister of East Germany.

12. October 23, 1990 Germany Formally Reunified On October 23, 1990, East and West Germany were no more. The two countries reunified. This is not considered to be a new country, but an expansion of the Federal Republic of Germany, under the government and structures already present in West Germany.

13. 9 November 1989, The fall of the Berlin Wall (German: Mauerfall) began and continued over the following days and weeks, with people nicknamed Mauerspechte (wall woodpeckers) using various tools to chip off souvenirs, demolishing lengthy parts in the process, and creating several unofficial border crossings.

14. José Alberto Valenzuela Jaime