Learning, Teaching, and Development

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Learning, Teaching, and Development by Mind Map: Learning, Teaching, and Development

1. Week 1: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

1.1. Schwab's Four Commonplaces of Education

1.1.1. Teacher

1.1.2. Topic

1.1.3. Setting

1.1.4. Student

1.2. Educational Psychology

1.2.1. considers how core psychological processes affect education

1.2.2. "considers how educational practices frames psychological research and perspectives"

1.2.3. nine foundational topics

1.2.3.1. learning and cognition

1.2.3.2. development

1.2.3.3. social and cultural influences

1.2.3.4. motivation

1.2.3.5. behaviour and classroom management

1.2.3.6. individual differences

1.2.3.7. assessment and evaluation

1.2.3.8. teaching and instruction

1.2.3.9. psychological foundations of curricula

1.2.4. research process

1.2.4.1. 1. Observe a phenomenon

1.2.4.2. 2. Form questions

1.2.4.3. 3. Apply research methods

1.2.4.4. 4. Develop guiding principles

1.2.4.5. 5. Develop theories

1.3. What is School For?

1.3.1. used to be for training students to be factory workers

1.3.2. we are taught to hold a little bit back

1.3.3. Frederick J. Kelly invented the standardized test and was fired when he attempted to recede it and was ostricized

1.4. Constructivism

1.4.1. students are responsible for their own learning; teacher is present as a facilitator only

1.4.2. encourages student engagement and participation

1.5. Instructional Approaches

1.5.1. teacher centred: when teacher decides on content and its presentation, provides direction, and sets the tone of the classroom

1.5.2. student-centred:: teacher takes a constructivist approach to learning and understands students actively create their own learning

1.5.3. differentiated instruction

1.6. Be a reflective practitioner!

1.6.1. assess practice in order to improve teaching in the future

2. Classroom Management Techniques

2.1. Parking Lot

2.2. Timer

2.3. Think, Pair, Share

2.4. Gallery Walk

2.5. Elbow Partners

2.6. Countdown

2.7. Flipped Classroom

2.8. Create Meaningful Relationships

2.9. Be Culturally Conscious

2.10. Greet at the Door

3. Week 9: Standardized Testing

3.1. standardized test definition

3.1.1. all test-takers have the same questions

3.1.2. administered to all individuals in the sam~ fashion, under the same conditions, and within a specified time

3.1.3. always scored in a systematic and uniform manner

3.2. standardized testing pros

3.2.1. opportunity for comparison of educational outcomes across schools, provinces, or countries

3.2.2. Results of standardized tests provide an opportunity to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the system

3.2.3. offering a means to assess accountability

3.2.4. a way to evaluate curricula and determine which schools/districts/regions are meeting goals.

3.2.5. objective

3.2.6. efficient

3.3. standardized testing cons

3.3.1. tendency to teach to the test

3.3.2. does not allow for linguistic or cultural differences

3.3.3. potential for subgroups of students to become lost

3.3.4. leads to student disengagement

3.3.5. do not adequately assess 21st century skills

3.4. criterion-referenced tests

3.4.1. student's score is reflective of how well he or she performed relative to established standards or criteria

3.5. norm-referenced tests

3.5.1. student's score is reflective of how well he or she did in comparison to all other students who completed the same test

3.6. in order for standardized testing to improve teaching, it must accomplish 5 things

3.6.1. assess important curricular goals

3.6.2. curricular goals must be teachable

3.6.3. assessed knowledge and skills must be clearly described and accurately reflect effective learning

3.6.4. test must be specific enough to directly guide instruction

3.6.5. assessment process must be minimally intrusive on classrooms

3.7. 21st Century Skills

3.7.1. Numeracy

3.7.2. Personal Management

3.7.3. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving

3.7.4. Communication

4. Week 7: Individual Differences

4.1. Intelligence

4.1.1. fluid*

4.1.1.1. ability to understand abstract concepts by using flexible and pattern-seeking methods

4.1.1.2. draw inferences and understand relationships independent of acquired knowledge

4.1.1.3. can be applied to many types of cognitive tasks

4.1.2. crystallized*

4.1.2.1. ability to apply culturally and environmentally influenced problem-solving skills

4.1.2.2. heavily influenced by experience

4.1.2.3. draws substantially on information stored in long-term memory

4.1.3. general memory and learning

4.1.4. broad visual perception*

4.1.4.1. ability to use and manipulate visual images and relationships when learning and problem-solving

4.1.4.2. substantial amount of curricular content is presented using images

4.1.5. broad auditory perception

4.1.6. broad retrieval capacity

4.1.7. broad recovery speediness

4.1.8. processing speed

4.2. Multiple Intelligences

4.2.1. Gardner

4.2.2. 8 separate intelligence structures

4.2.2.1. linguistic

4.2.2.2. logic-mathematical

4.2.2.3. bodily-kinesthetic

4.2.2.4. musical

4.2.2.5. interpersonal

4.2.2.6. intrapersonal

4.2.2.7. spatial

4.2.2.8. naturalistic

4.2.3. every student has a unique cognitive profile

4.2.4. no evidence of the separateness of these intelligences

4.2.5. based on theoretical rationale and education intuitions

4.2.6. I prefer to believe this is true, as a teacher, because it provides straightforward information on a student's strengths and how they learn best

4.3. Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence

4.3.1. Sternberg

4.3.2. analytical/componential

4.3.3. creative/experiential

4.3.4. practical/contextual

4.4. Special Education

4.4.1. teaching that is prepared and conducted slightly differently in order to accommodate the special learning needs of students with exceptionalities

4.4.2. key is specialized instruction based on proper assessment of children's abilities

4.4.3. high-incidence exceptionalities typically include learning disabilities, behavioural disorders, giftedness, intellectual disabilities

4.4.4. low-incidence exceptionalities typically include autism, hearing/visual impairments, health impairment, multiple disabilities

4.4.5. all students with exceptionalities should be educated within regular classrooms to the greatest extent possible

4.5. Individual Education Plan

4.5.1. 1. Identification

4.5.2. 2. Diagnostic Instruction

4.5.3. 3. Referral

4.5.4. 4. Assessment

4.5.5. 5. Educational Intervention

4.5.6. 6. Evaluation of Student Progress

4.5.7. Repeat from 4

5. Week 2: Considering Developmental Differences

5.1. Development

5.1.1. follows an orderly and logical progression

5.1.2. gradually progressive

5.1.3. quantitative and qualitative changes

5.1.4. influenced by genetics and environment

5.1.5. individuals progress at different rates

5.2. Piaget

5.2.1. adaptation: equilibrium vs. disequilibrium

5.2.1.1. information is assimilated or accommodated

5.2.1.2. schemes and schemas

5.2.2. stages of cognitive development

5.2.2.1. sensorimotor (0-2 years)

5.2.2.2. preoperational (2-6 years)

5.2.2.3. concrete operational (6-11 years)

5.2.2.4. formal operational (11+ years)

5.3. Growth Mindset

5.3.1. students understand their abilities can be developed

5.3.2. focus on progress instead of results

5.3.3. alternative to the fixed mindset perspective, where students focus

5.3.4. students embrace challenges, persist in the face of setbacks, see effort as the path to mastery, learn from criticism, and find inspiration in the success of students

6. Week 3: Views of Learning – Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

6.1. cognitivism

6.1.1. brain is viewed as working like a computer hard drive

6.1.2. educators are observers and promote situations for students to create their own knowledge

6.1.3. developmental stages dictate what students are ready to learn

6.1.4. Piaget

6.2. constructivism

6.2.1. educators are mediators and co-responsible for the learning process

6.2.2. students have an active role in the learning process

6.2.3. learning is assisted by a knowledgeable other

6.2.4. knowledge is collaboratively produced

6.2.5. Vygotsky

6.3. behaviourism

6.3.1. focuses on controlling behaviour through positive/negative reinforcements

6.3.2. learning driven by transmission of knowledge deemed correct

6.3.3. students are blank slates, ready to be filled with knowledge from the teacher and taught correct behaviour

6.3.4. Skinner

7. Week 4: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

7.1. Dynamic Classroom Management

7.1.1. develop caring, supportive relationships with and among students

7.1.2. organize and implement instruction to optimize student access to learning

7.1.3. use group management methods that encourages student engagement in academic tasks

7.1.4. promote development of social skills and self-regulation

7.1.5. use appropriate interventions to assist students with behaviour

7.1.6. based on the theoretical and behavioural constructs that form the foundations of positive behaviour support

7.1.7. applies two primary instructional tenets of classroom discourse research

7.1.7.1. emphasis on explanatory teacher-student discourse

7.1.7.2. includes overtly explicit rules and routines

7.2. "Most Likely to Succeed"

7.2.1. school for the process of transferring academic content is now obsolete

7.2.2. success in school no longer dictates success after school

7.2.3. content knowledge matters, skills matter more, and motivation matters most

7.3. "The Myth of Average"

7.3.1. we design our classrooms for the "average" student, when no such student exists

7.3.2. jagged learning profile

7.3.3. use technology to create flexible learning environments that nurture the potential of every student

7.4. Instructional Variables

7.4.1. difficulty level

7.4.2. space

7.4.3. time

7.4.4. language

7.4.5. interpersonal relationships

8. Week 5: Making Instructional Decisions

8.1. Universal Instructional Design

8.1.1. advocates for physical spaces or objects that consider the needs of all users

8.1.2. designed with least independently-able student in mind

8.1.3. specific question = student understanding

8.1.4. multiple representations allow students to make connections within and between concepts

8.1.5. there is no one means of expression that is optimal for all learners

8.1.6. learners differ markedly in the way they can be engaged and motivated

8.2. Bloom's Taxonomy

8.2.1. 1. Knowledge

8.2.2. 2. Comprehension

8.2.3. 3. Application

8.2.4. 4. Analysis

8.2.5. 5. Synthesis

8.2.6. 6. Evaluation

8.3. Cognitive Strategies

8.3.1. purposeful and controllable thinking process that actively promotes the understanding and retention of knowledge

8.3.2. metacognition refers to the executive thinking processes that actively control the cognitive processes that become engaged when the brain is required to think or learn

8.3.3. cognitive verbs: remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, creating and evaluating

8.4. SOI Information Processing Model

8.4.1. select relevant information

8.4.2. organize the information

8.4.3. integrate organized information with prior knowledge

8.4.4. meaningfulness happens primarily because of the method students use to process the information

9. Week 6: How Your Students Learn

9.1. Backward Design

9.1.1. What do you want your students to learn?

9.1.2. How do I determine whether or not my students have learned it?

9.1.3. What will I teach?

9.1.4. How will I teach it?

9.2. Understanding by Design

9.2.1. teach and assess for understanding and transfer

9.2.2. students should understand larger transferable processes across topics

9.2.3. connect curriculum topics

9.3. Stiggins' Achievement Targets

9.3.1. develops the combined use of knowledge with specific processes to create products

9.3.2. develops the preferred attitudes and dispositions that students should bring to their academic endeavours

9.3.3. knowledge

9.3.4. reasoning skills

9.3.5. products

9.3.6. attitudes and dispositions

9.4. "Integrated Learning in the Classroom"

9.4.1. think big

9.4.2. think real-world

9.4.3. think broad context about literacy

10. Week 8: Socio-Cultural Considerations

10.1. nature versus nurture

10.1.1. individuals have an essential genetic predisposition that gives rise to fundamental cognitive, social, and linguistic functions

10.2. all students can be taught

10.2.1. social-identity factors can emanate from a student's race, culture, gender, and/or socio-economic status and are thought to influence how students learn, how much they learn, and how well they learn.

10.3. there are as many differences between individuals from the same identified groups

10.4. teachers need to acquire a critical consciousness

10.4.1. self-reflection

10.4.2. students share their own experiences

10.4.3. develop a broad range of teaching strategies

10.4.4. celebrate students as individuals

10.4.5. emphasize cooperation

10.5. Aboriginal Education

10.5.1. 7 Protection Factors

10.5.2. Early Intervention

10.5.3. Resiliency

10.5.4. Positive Self-Image

10.5.5. Engagement by Families

10.5.6. Community Involvement

10.5.7. Relevant Programming

10.5.8. Connection to Aboriginal Role Models and Support