Psychological Research

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Psychological Research by Mind Map: Psychological Research

1. Research Design

1.1. Experimental

1.1.1. IV manipulated by experimenter

1.1.2. Controlled (control and treatment groups)

1.1.2.1. Placebo Effect

1.1.2.1.1. Occurs when a participants responses to the experiment with the controlled group

1.1.2.1.2. Single-blind trail = Subject don't know what group they are in

1.1.2.2. Experimenter Effect

1.1.2.2.1. The experimenter may influence the outcome of the experiment

1.1.2.2.2. Double-blind trail = both subject and experimenter knows the groups

1.1.3. Causal Relationship can be determined

1.2. Quantitative Observational

1.2.1. IV is pre-existing with two different two groups

1.2.2. Performed when an experiment is unethical, to costly or impossible

1.2.3. No cause relationship can be established

1.3. Qualitative

1.3.1. Focus Group

1.3.1.1. 5 - 8 participants

1.3.1.2. 45 - 60 minutes face to face

1.3.1.3. Everything is document

1.3.2. Delphi Technique

1.3.2.1. 'Experts' are ask open eded questions though the form of a survey

2. Ethics

2.1. Psychological and Physical Wellbeing

2.2. Participants Rights

2.2.1. Confidentiality

2.2.2. Voluntary Participation

2.2.3. Withdrawal Rights

2.2.4. Informed consent

2.2.5. Deception

2.2.6. Defriefing

2.3. Professional Conduct

2.4. Use of Animals

2.4.1. Care of animals

2.4.2. Minimise pain and distress

2.4.3. Humane euthanasia

2.4.4. Justification of research

2.4.5. Number of animals used

2.4.6. Source of animals

2.5. Special cases - Children

3. Variables

3.1. Independent Variable = The variable that is changed

3.2. Dependent Variable = The variable that is measured

3.3. Extraneous Variable

3.3.1. Participant Variable = Individual differences between participants (Age, sex)

3.3.2. Situational Variable = Factors within the studies situations (noise, time)

3.4. Causation = When a variable is directly affecting the results

3.5. Correlation = When two variables show similar trends but have nothing to do with each other

3.6. Validity

3.6.1. Internal Validity = Degree to which the study accurately measure what it set out to

3.6.2. External Validity = Degree to which the results of the study show the whole population

3.7. Reliability = if the test was repeated would the results be the same

4. Factors

4.1. Random Selection = Subjects need to be randomly selected from the population

4.1.1. Population = The entire group that is relevant to the study

4.1.2. Sample = The group involved in the investigation, selected from the population

4.2. Representative Sample = The sample need to reflect the whole population truthy

4.3. Random Allocation

4.3.1. Experimental Group = Exposed to the experiment condition

4.3.2. Control Group = Exposed to the controlled conditions

5. Data

5.1. Objective Vs Subjective

5.1.1. Objective = Not opinion-based e.g how many hours they slept

5.1.2. Subjective = Opinion-based e.g how long a person thinks they sleep

5.2. Qualitative Vs Quantitive

5.2.1. Qualitative = Descriptive response using words

5.2.2. Quantitive = Numerical responses

5.3. Objective Quantitive = Measures Numbers

5.3.1. Physiological measures

5.3.2. Behavioural measures

5.3.3. Scores on test

5.4. Subjective Quantitive

5.4.1. Quesionnairs

5.4.2. Liker rating scales out of 10

5.4.3. Personality test

5.5. Qualitative

5.5.1. Open-ended responses

5.5.2. States options

6. Four Levels Of Explanation

6.1. Biological = The physical process underlying behaviour

6.1.1. Brain structure & Function

6.1.2. Sensory receptors & Fhe motor system

6.1.3. Hormones & Genetics

6.2. Basic Process

6.2.1. Memory (Original events)

6.2.2. Learning (What kind of learning has taking place)

6.2.3. Cognition (What thoughts are taking place)

6.3. Person

6.3.1. Personality (Introvert/extrovert)

6.3.2. Individual Preferences (Music, Books)

6.4. Socio-Cultural

6.4.1. Culture (Norms in situation)

6.4.2. Socio-economic influences

6.4.3. Peer groups (Opinions and presences of peers)

6.4.4. Sterio-types (Boys and Girls)