6330 Mind Map

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6330 Mind Map af Mind Map: 6330 Mind Map

1. Instructional Design& Learning Theory

1.1. Learning Theories

1.1.1. Behaviorism:observable changes in behavior

1.1.1.1. Pavlov((1849 - 1936))'s experiment Thorndike (1874 - 1949)'s research Watson (1878 - 1958)'s experiment Skinner (1904 - 1990)'s experiment

1.1.2. Cognitivism:the thought process behind the behavior

1.1.2.1. Schema Three-Stage Information Processing Model Meniningful Effects Serial Position Effects Practice Effects Transfer Effects Interference Effects Organization Effects Levels of Process Effects State Development Effects Mnemonic Effects Schema Effects Advance Organizers

1.1.3. Constructivism:construct our own perspective of the world, through individual experiences and schema.

1.1.3.1. Realistic vs. Radical Construction The Assumptions of Constructivism - Merrill

1.2. Comparing The Development of Learning Theories to the Development of the Atomic Theory

1.3. The History of Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Constructivism in Instructional Design

1.3.1. Behaviorism and Instructional Design

1.3.2. Cognitivism and Instructional Design

1.3.3. Constructivism and Instructional Design

1.4. Learning Theories and the Practice of Instructional Design

1.4.1. Learning Theories - Some Strengths and Weaknesses

1.4.2. Is There One Best Learning Theory for Instructional Design

2. Constructivism, pioneered byBartlett (1932),is generally believed that "learners construct their own reality or at least interpret it based upon their perceptions of experiences, so an individual's knowledge is a function of one's prior experiences, mental structures, and beliefs that are used to interpret objects and events." "What someone knows is grounded in perception of the physical and social experiences which are comprehended by the mind." (Jonasson, 1991). Social constructivism emphasizes the importance of culture and context in understanding what occurs in society and constructing knowledge based on this understanding (Kim, 2001,McMahon, 1997). It views learning as a social process, not simply communication and collaboration. Knowledge is also a human product, and is socially and culturally constructed (Ernest, 1990). Through active learning, not passive external force, students will engage in social activities conducted in the real situations to reach meaningful learning. Communications and interactions entail socially agreed-upon ideas of the world and the social patterns and rules of language use (Ernest, 1990). Social meeting with individual performance will shape the personal understanding by experiences of communication and negotiation social context.

3. Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices

3.1. Functionality framework

3.1.1. Collaborative Location Aware Data Collection Administration Referential Interactive Microworld

3.2. Pedagogical underpinning

3.3. Collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications

4. Readings

4.1. A history of instructional design and technology

4.1.1. Part I

4.1.1.1. History of instructional media-the way instruction is presented to learners School Museums The visual instruction movement and instructional films The audiovisual instruction movement and instructional radio World war II and post-world war II developments and media research Theories of communication Instructional television shifting terminology Computers:from the 1950s to 1995 Recent developments

4.1.2. Part II

4.1.2.1. The origins of instructional design The programmed instruction movement for more early development The popularization of behavioral objects The criterion referenced testing movement Early instructional design models Growth and redirection changing views and practices

4.2. Problem Based Learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework

4.2.1. Constructivism

4.2.1.1. Core:Understanding is in our interactions with the environment

4.2.1.2. Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understandings

4.2.1.3. Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned.

4.2.2. Instructional Principles

4.2.2.1. Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem

4.2.2.2. Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task

4.2.2.3. Design an authentic task

4.2.2.4. Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning

4.2.2.5. Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution

4.2.2.6. Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner's thinking

4.2.2.7. Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts.

4.2.2.8. Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process

4.2.3. Problem-Based Learning

4.2.3.1. Learning goals

4.2.3.2. Problem generation

4.2.3.3. Problem presentation

4.3. The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media

4.3.1. What is the promise of multimedia learning

4.3.1.1. Deep learning by combining words and multimedia

4.3.2. What is a multimedia instructional message?

4.3.2.1. Multimedia messages that provide explanations of how something works

4.3.3. How does multimedia learning work?

4.3.3.1. Multimedia Presentation->Sensory Memory->Working Memory->Long-term Memory

4.3.4. Do methods work across media?

4.3.4.1. Multimedia effect with text-and-illustrations and narration-and-animation

4.3.4.2. Coherence effect with text-and-illustrations and narration-and-animation

4.3.4.3. Contiguity effect with text-and-illustrations and text-and-animation

4.3.4.4. Personalization effect with animation-and-narration and animation-and-text

4.4. Teaching and Learning Online

4.4.1. Online Learning

4.4.1.1. many kinds of online materials are available in the internet

4.4.1.2. 9 types of framework for online learning settings

4.4.1.3. 3 instructional forms for online learning

4.4.1.4. Learning as Knowledge Construction

4.4.1.5. Web-based Learning and Instructional Design

4.4.1.6. Designing online settings that support knowledge construction

4.4.2. Learning Tasks

4.4.3. Learning Resources

4.4.4. Learning Support

4.4.5. Learning Designs

4.4.6. Design and Development Strategies

5. Reflections

5.1. Reflection of Introduction part

5.1.1. 1. Get more understanding about Instructional Design

5.1.2. 2. Summary of Instructional Design

5.2. Reflection of Design Model

5.2.1. John Biggs (2003) indicates that learning theories should be combined with learning activity design in order to achieve ILO (Intended Learning Outcomes). In this session, we explore more about instructional design and ADDIE Model to help execute instructional design management and deployment.One fundamental idea we should keep in instructional design is that the quality of design is mainly measured by successful student learning outcomes. It is alignment with pedagogy that we use . So once learning outcomes is achieved, the design is half successful. I think another factor contributing to our instructional design will be pedagogy we adopt. Generally speaking, currently we are intended for social constructivism as pedagogy for instructional design. Constructivism learning theories emphasize the active performance to contribute to group work. Hence when designing, our design have to be effective in terms of enabling changes to be tracked,which are critical in the development of successful learning designs (Jones, 2007). Students and the teacher can easily determine the “who, what and when” of contributions” (Knutzen & Kennedy, 2008), which will be helpful for evaluation of the individual learning outcomes. And it will also include management of groups of students,an aim required to be achieved by E-learning based pedagogy framework. (Britain & Liber, 2004).

5.2.2. Instructional Learning Design to meet learning outcomes

5.3. Reflection on Instructional Design

5.3.1. Instructional Design and Learning Theory

5.3.1.1. Behaviorism, coined by Watson, J. B. (1913), emphasizes the change of the environment will shape one’s behavior. In behaviorism style of learning, reinforcement is the cardinal motivator. Positive reinforcers like rewards and successes are preferable to negative events like punishments and failures (Smith, 1999a). To encourage students to actively participate in the forum, teachers will set bonus or penalty to give impetus for students to learn. Behaviorism, as a learning theory, can be traced back to Aristotle, whose essay "Memory" focused on associations being made between events such as lightning and thunder. Other philosophers that followed Aristotle's thoughts are Hobbs (1650), Hume (1740), Brown (1820), Bain (1855) and Ebbinghause (1885) (Black, 1995).The theory of behaviorism concentrates on the study of overt behaviors that can be observed and measured (Good & Brophy, 1990). It views the mind as a "black box" in the sense that response to stimulus can be observed quantitatively, totally ignoring the possibility of thought processes occurring in the mind. Some key players in the development of the behaviorist theory were Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike and Skinner.

5.3.1.2. Cognitivism views learning as internal mental process (including insight, information processing, memory, perception) where in order to develop learner capacity and skills to improve learning, the educator structures content of learning activities to focus on building intelligence and cognitive and meta-cognitive development (Smith, 1999b).

5.4. Reflection on Evaluation

5.4.1. 1. “The program’s educational effectiveness and teaching / learning process is assessed through an evaluation process that uses several methods and applies specific standards. 2. Data on enrollment, costs, and successful / innovative uses of technology are used to evaluate program effectiveness. 3. Intended learning outcomes are reviewed regularly to ensure clarity, utility, and appropriateness.” (IHE, 2000)

5.5. Reflection on Web 2.0 and Social Web Learning

5.5.1. Social network tools are the cream of Web 2.0 technology, which will facilitate social constructive and cognitive learning in many aspects. The design of activity five identifies and utilizes three mainstream social networking tools to foster students to reflect in references from teacher and peers, to reach paradigm shift (Thomas Kuhn,1970; Mezirow, 1990). The effectiveness of this activity will be proved by the findings of Beagle that social networking inherently encourages collaboration and engagement. This is meaningful to teachers who are trying to find ways to involve every student in something that is personally engaging (Beagle & Hodges). Students will think and learn deeply with more social networking actions.

5.6. Conclusive Reflections

5.6.1. I have been teaching business English in a fortune 500 company for several years. In the Business English Course, students (all of them are adults) are typical lecture receivers for 2-hour-long learning. Course materials will be displayed in PPT projected to the screen and students will copy all the points in their notes book. There are no extra class activities for all the listeners, even for group chat or discussion. After class, I will give a standard English test in the form of traditional paper, including multiple choice and essay writing. Our team is deploying a new training programme to upgrade our training strategy, where Instructional Design can be better served as a tool to help me plan blended training and learning project. I begin to adopt ADDIE Module to deploy this program and I aslo use Zoho project to monitor the progress. For adults, learning activities design must be considered from teacher-centered to students-center with teachers supporting as facilitator (John Biggs, 1999). I will conduct my instructional design with what I learn from this course to prove the effectiveness use of technologies and pedagogy. As long as learning activities design achieves intended learning outcomes in practice, I am convinced that my new design will make a progress.

6. Course Topics

6.1. Design of Learning/Instructional Technology Product

6.2. Instructional Design Models and Analysis Stage of a Process

6.3. Design Stage of Products

6.4. Design Stage of Storyboard

6.5. Developing and Evaluating a Prototype

7. External Resources

7.1. Collaborative Tools

7.1.1. Google Docs, Form and Presentations:https://drive.google.com/

7.1.1.1. Upload your files, edit anytime from anywhere, choose who can access your documents share and collaborate online (maybe blocked by mainland China)

7.1.2. Sky Drive: Microsoft Online Office:https://skydrive.live.com/

7.1.2.1. Upload your files, edit anytime from anywhere, choose who can access your documents share and collaborate online based on office 365

7.1.3. Collaborize Classroom: http://www.collaborizeclassroom.com/

7.1.3.1. Complement classroom instruction and engage students in online activities, assignments and discussions that allow for deeper participation inside and outside the classroom. Embed Microsoft Office documents, videos, pictures, and PDFs. Publish discussions to a results page so students can see tangible outcomes of their conversations. Download FREE lesson plans.

7.1.4. MailVu:http://mailvu.com/

7.1.4.1. Video email up to 10 minutes. Self-destruct after # of views. Retract video email at will. Video stored up to 365 days.

7.1.5. Shoutmix:http://www.shoutmix.com/v3/

7.1.5.1. A widget that allows you to interact with others instantly. A shoutbox can be placed on your blog or website. Your visitors can then easily post comments in it. They can also use the shoutbox to chat with you and other visitors at the same time. You will be able to customize the sizes, styles, fonts, colors and labels.A widget that allows you to interact with others instantly. A shoutbox can be placed on your blog or website. Your visitors can then easily post comments in it. They can also use the shoutbox to chat with you and other visitors at the same time. You will be able to customize the sizes, styles, fonts, colors and labels.

7.1.6. Twiddla Collaborative Drawing Tool:http://www.twiddla.com/home.aspx

7.1.6.1. Draw, use text, upload pdf, word or excel docs. Invite others and communicate by text or audio.

7.2. Web 2.0 Presentation Tool

7.2.1. Google Site:http://sites.google.com/

7.2.1.1. Google Sites is a free and easy way to create and share webpages. Create rich web pages easily. Collect all your info in one place. Control who can view and edit

7.2.2. Prezi Presentation:http://prezi.com/

7.2.2.1. Create maps of texts, images, videos, PDFs, drawings and present in a nonlinear way. Move beyond the slide.

7.2.3. Power Point Online (office 365):http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/

7.2.3.1. Office 365 is online collaborative office tool, where power point is conducted online by different people simultaneously

7.3. Other useful Web 2.0 tools

7.3.1. Voice Thread:http://voicethread.com/

7.3.1.1. Create a slideshow of images or video and you and others can comment on each photo by text, audio or video. Embed into any webpage.

7.3.2. Online Research:http://www.findhow.com/

7.3.2.1. Find how to do things. This site gives you access to trusted, reliable How-To content on the Internet.