Kepner-Tregoe® (KT) Problem Solving and Decision Making (PSDM) study guide mind map

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Kepner-Tregoe® (KT) Problem Solving and Decision Making (PSDM) study guide mind map af Mind Map: Kepner-Tregoe® (KT) Problem Solving and Decision Making (PSDM) study guide mind map

1. Kepner-Tregoe® deals with patterns of thinking, response, and behavior developed around accumulating answers to 4 basic questions:

1.1. What's going on?

1.1.1. Situation Appraisal process

1.2. Why did this happen?

1.2.1. Problem Analysis process

1.3. Which course of action should we take?

1.3.1. Decision Analysis process

1.4. What lies ahead?

1.4.1. Potential Problem / Opportunity Analysis process

2. Kepner-Tregoe Processes (4)

2.1. 1. Situation Appraisal (SA)

2.1.1. What is it?

2.1.1.1. Situation Appraisal is a process that reveals all the aspects of a situation and their relative priority. It then determines what different courses of action are needed and who needs to be involved for effective resolution

2.1.1.2. Almost any situation requiring effective action will benefits from the application of Situation Appraisal

2.1.1.3. A systematic process for planning concern resolution

2.1.1.3.1. WHY?

2.1.1.4. Has 4 steps

2.1.1.4.1. 1. Identify Concerns

2.1.1.4.2. 2. Set Priority

2.1.1.4.3. 3. Plan Next Steps

2.1.1.4.4. 4. Plan Involvement

2.1.2. Why do it?

2.1.2.1. To avoid being too general

2.1.2.2. To help clarify issues, find out which is important and involve the right people in next steps

2.1.2.3. In many situations, a number of problems arise at the same time.

2.1.2.3.1. In some cases they are interconnected; in other cases, they are totally unrelated, and it is “just one of those days.”

2.1.2.4. Situation Analysis can prove useful in helping to decide which problem receives the highest priority.

2.1.3. 1. Identify Concerns

2.1.3.1. 1. Identify the theme

2.1.3.1.1. Identifying theme ans cope of the appraisal.

2.1.3.2. 2. List threats and opportunities

2.1.3.2.1. Identifying concerns (positive and nagative) that impact the customer and required action to resolve

2.1.3.2.2. questions to be asked

2.1.3.3. 3. Separate and clarify concerns

2.1.3.3.1. Ensure each concern is clear and specific.

2.1.3.3.2. Restating unclear concerns into specific, actionable elements to minimize / alleviate

2.1.3.3.3. questions to be asked

2.1.4. 2. Set Priority

2.1.4.1. Determine which concerns should be worked on first by comparing their impact on customers, cost, safety, etc., and specific deadlines for resolution

2.1.4.1.1. WHY?

2.1.4.2. 1. Consider the current impact

2.1.4.2.1. questions to be asked

2.1.4.3. 2. Consider the future impact

2.1.4.3.1. questions to be asked

2.1.4.4. 3. Consider the time frame

2.1.4.4.1. questions to be asked

2.1.5. 3. Plan Next Steps

2.1.5.1. 1. Determine resolution approach

2.1.5.1.1. Determine the type and amount of analysis needed to resolve each concern.

2.1.5.1.2. questions to be asked

2.1.6. 4. Plan Involvement

2.1.6.1. 1. Determine help needed

2.1.6.1.1. Assigning responsibility (required involvement for information, analysis, commitment, implementation, approval) and scheduling next steps

2.1.6.1.2. questions to be asked

2.2. 2. Problem Analysis (PA)

2.2.1. What is it?

2.2.1.1. Problem Analysis is a process for gathering and analyzing just the information needed to find and correct the true cause of a problem

2.2.1.2. Any performance that is poorer than expected can be addressed by Problem Analysis

2.2.1.3. A systematic process for analysing problem and finding root cause

2.2.1.3.1. WHY?

2.2.1.4. Has 4 steps

2.2.1.4.1. 1. Describe Problem

2.2.1.4.2. 2. Identify Possible Causes

2.2.1.4.3. 3. Evaluate Possible Causes

2.2.1.4.4. 4. Confirm and Verify the Root Cause

2.2.2. Why do it?

2.2.2.1. To avoid wasting resources like time, money and effort in jumping to a cause based on a hunch, previous history or a shot gun approach.

2.2.3. 1. Describe Problem

2.2.3.1. 1. State the problem

2.2.3.1.1. questions to be asked

2.2.3.2. 2. Specify the problem

2.2.3.2.1. questions to be asked

2.2.4. 2. Identify Possible Causes

2.2.4.1. 1. From knowledge and experience

2.2.4.1.1. Use knowledge and experience to develop possible cause statements

2.2.4.1.2. questions to be asked

2.2.4.2. 2. Look for distinctions and changes

2.2.4.2.1. Use distinctions and changes to develop possible cause statements

2.2.4.2.2. questions to be asked

2.2.5. 3. Evaluate Possible Causes

2.2.5.1. 1. Test possible causes

2.2.5.1.1. Test Possible causes against all IS and IS NOT specification

2.2.5.1.2. questions to be asked

2.2.5.2. 2. Determine the most probable cause

2.2.5.2.1. Determine the cause that is the most probable

2.2.5.2.2. questions to be asked

2.2.6. 4. Confirm the Root Cause

2.2.6.1. 1. Verify assumptions, observe, experiment or try a fix and monitor

2.2.6.1.1. 4 main ways to verify

2.2.6.1.2. questions to be asked

2.3. 3. Decision Analysis (DA)

2.3.1. What is it?

2.3.1.1. Decision Analysis is a process that marries logic, expertise, creativity and factual information to guide individuals and groups to sound choices

2.3.1.1.1. A systematic process for making a choice

2.3.1.2. A systematic process for making a choice to balance benefits and risks

2.3.1.2.1. WHY?

2.3.1.3. Has 4 steps

2.3.1.3.1. 1. Clarify Purpose

2.3.1.3.2. 2. Evaluate Alternatives

2.3.1.3.3. 3. Assess Risks

2.3.1.3.4. 4. Make Decision

2.3.2. Why do it?

2.3.2.1. To make the best balanced choice between your alternatives and to make sure that everyone understands your objectives and selection process.

2.3.3. 1. Clarify Purpose

2.3.3.1. 1. State the decision

2.3.3.1.1. Short statement (in one sentence) describing the intended result of a decision

2.3.3.1.2. Formulate in one sentence the desired end result and key modifiers

2.3.3.1.3. questions to be asked

2.3.3.2. 2. Develop objectives

2.3.3.2.1. Identifying criteria that will influence the choice

2.3.3.2.2. Formulate specific, measurable criteria

2.3.3.2.3. questions to be asked

2.3.3.3. 3. Classify objectives into MUSTs and WANTs

2.3.3.3.1. Determining the role objetives will play in the decision

2.3.3.3.2. Identify MUSTs criteria with clear and mesurable limits

2.3.3.3.3. Determine which MUSTs should also be reflected as WANTs

2.3.3.3.4. questions to be asked

2.3.3.4. 4. Weigh the WANTs

2.3.3.4.1. Determine the most important WANT and give it a weight of 10

2.3.3.4.2. Weight the other WANTs in relation to it

2.3.3.4.3. Assigning relative values to WANT objectives

2.3.3.4.4. questions to be asked

2.3.4. 2. Evaluating Alternatives

2.3.4.1. 1. Generate alternatives

2.3.4.1.1. Create or identify possible options by making use of the objectives, experts and other resources

2.3.4.1.2. Identifying or creating possible choices

2.3.4.1.3. questions to be asked

2.3.4.2. 2. Screen alternatives through the MUSTs

2.3.4.2.1. Determining if alternatives meet the MUSTs

2.3.4.2.2. questions to be asked

2.3.4.3. 3 or 4

2.3.4.3.1. 3. Use knowledge and experience

2.3.4.3.2. 4. Compare alternatives against the WANTs

2.3.5. 3. Assess Risks

2.3.5.1. 1. Identify adverse consequences

2.3.5.1.1. Identifying future threats for best alternative(s)

2.3.5.1.2. questions to be asked

2.3.5.2. 2. Assess the threat

2.3.5.2.1. Determine probability, seriousness for each risk

2.3.6. 4. Make Decisions

2.3.6.1. 1. Make the best balanced choice

2.3.6.1.1. Selecting an alternative that best meets criteria with acceptable risks

2.3.6.1.2. questions to be asked

2.4. 4. Potential Problem Analysis (PPA) / Potential Opportunity Analysis (POA)

2.4.1. What is it?

2.4.1.1. Potential Problem / Opportunity Analysis is a process that combines past experience and creative insights about the future to logically analyze and prepare for the risks and rewards that could occur

2.4.1.2. Any action, activity, project or progremme, will benefits from Potential Problem / Opportunity Analysis

2.4.1.3. Has 4 steps (in both versions)

2.4.1.3.1. 1. Identify Potential Problems / Opportunities

2.4.1.3.2. 2. Identify Likely Causes

2.4.1.3.3. 3. Take Preventive / Promoting Action

2.4.1.3.4. 4. Plan Contigent / Capitalizing Action and Set Triggers

2.4.2. Why do it?

2.4.2.1. To avoid being reactive and to understand the key drivers of causes and how to prevent them.

2.4.3. for Problems (PPA)

2.4.3.1. What is it?

2.4.3.1.1. A systematic process for protecting actions or plans

2.4.3.2. 1. Identify Potential Problems

2.4.3.2.1. 1. State the action

2.4.3.2.2. 2. List potential problems

2.4.3.2.3. 3 or 4

2.4.3.3. 2. Identify Likely Causes

2.4.3.3.1. 1. Consider causes for the potential problem

2.4.3.4. 3. Take Preventive Action

2.4.3.4.1. 1. Take actions to address likely causes

2.4.3.5. 4. Plan Contigent Action and Set Triggers

2.4.3.5.1. 1. Prepare actions to reduce likely effects

2.4.3.5.2. 2. Set triggers for contingent actions

2.4.4. for Opportunities (POA)

2.4.4.1. What is it?

2.4.4.1.1. A systematic process for improving actions or plans

2.4.4.2. 1. Identify Potential Opportunities

2.4.4.2.1. 1. State the action

2.4.4.2.2. 2. List potential opportunities

2.4.4.2.3. 3 or 4

2.4.4.3. 2. Identify Likely Causes

2.4.4.3.1. 1. Consider causes for the potential opportunity

2.4.4.4. 3. Take Promoting Action

2.4.4.4.1. 1. Take actions to encourage likely causes

2.4.4.5. 4. Plan Capitalizing Action and Set Triggers

2.4.4.5.1. 1. Prepare actions to cnhance likely effects

2.4.4.5.2. 2. Set triggers for capitalizing actions

3. This freeware mind map was carefully hand crafted with passion and love for learning and constant improvement as well for promotion the Kepner-Tregoe® methodology and as a learning tool for candidates wanting to gain Kepner-Tregoe® qualification. (please share, like and give feedback - your feedback and comments are my main motivation for further elaboration. THX!)

3.1. Questions / issues / errors? What do you think about my work? Your comments are highly appreciated. Please don't hesitate to contact me for :-) Mirosław Dąbrowski, Poland/Warsaw.

3.1.1. http://www.linkedin.com/in/miroslawdabrowski

3.1.2. https://www.google.com/+MiroslawDabrowski

3.1.3. https://play.spotify.com/user/miroslawdabrowski/

3.1.4. http://www.miroslawdabrowski.com

3.1.5. https://twitter.com/mirodabrowski

3.1.6. miroslaw_dabrowski

4. Kepner-Tregoe® (KT) Problem Solving and Decision Making (PSDM) methodology consists of: 4 Processes.

5. Kepner-Tregoe® (KT) Problem Solving and Decision Making (PSDM) - is a proven, step-by-step process for successfully solving problems, making good decisions, prioritizing issues, and analyzing potential risks and opportunities. For almost 60 years, these skills have equipped learners with the foundation of effective critical thinking.

5.1. Kepner-Tregoe, Inc. is a multinational management consulting and training services company headquartered in Princeton, New Jersey.

5.1.1. Founded in 1958 based on ground-breaking research on how people think, solve problems and make decisions, Princeton-based Kepner-Tregoe is dedicated to helping organizations achieve Operational Excellence by improving quality, increasing efficiency and reducing costs.

5.1.2. Kepner-Tregoe (KT) provides capability development and consulting solutions across the world to help build Thinking Organizations that resolve the most pressing issues with clarity and confidence.

5.1.3. Company is best known for their Rational Process technique, and together wrote the book "The Rational Manager" published in 1965 and "The New Rational Manager" published in 1981.

6. Interactive Kepner-Tregoe® Glossary

6.1. Interactive Kepner-Tregoe® Glossary

7. Kepner-Tregoe® Official publication

7.1. The New Rational Manager - An Updated Edition for a New World [2013]

7.1.1. ISBN-13: 978-0971562714

7.1.2. ISBN-10: 0971562717

7.1.3. Pages: 242

7.1.4. http://www.amazon.com/Rational-Manager-Charles-Higgins-Kepner/dp/0971562717