modal verbs

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modal verbs af Mind Map: modal verbs

1. modal auxiliaries+simple form of verb

1.1. had better

1.1.1. advisability

1.1.2. examples

1.1.2.1. you had better be your umbrella with you today.

1.2. can

1.2.1. informal polite requests

1.2.1.1. can you pass the sugar?

1.2.1.2. yes,be glad to

1.2.2. ability

1.2.2.1. present

1.2.2.1.1. can he swim ?

1.2.2.1.2. yes, he can

1.2.2.1.3. no,he can't

1.2.2.2. past

1.2.2.2.1. i could swim when i was young,but now i can't.

1.2.3. informal permission

1.2.3.1. future

1.2.3.1.1. you can use my phone tomorrow

1.2.4. impossibility (negative only)

1.2.4.1. futuer

1.2.4.1.1. that can't be availabel

1.2.4.2. past

1.2.4.2.1. that can't have  been available

1.3. could

1.3.1. polite requests

1.3.1.1. could you pass me the sugar?

1.3.1.2. yes,of course

1.3.2. past ability

1.3.2.1. could he swim when he was 5 years old?

1.3.2.2. yes,he could

1.3.2.3. no, he could not

1.3.3. suggestion (affirmative only )

1.3.3.1. present

1.3.3.1.1. i need help in English grammar. you could talk to your teacher.

1.3.3.2. past

1.3.3.2.1. you could have talked to your teacher.

1.3.4. certainty

1.3.4.1. present

1.3.4.1.1. where is Rana ? she could be at home.

1.3.4.2. past

1.3.4.2.1. she could have been at home.

1.3.5. impossibility ( negative only)

1.3.5.1. present

1.3.5.1.1. that couldn't be true

1.3.5.2. past

1.3.5.2.1. that couldn't have  been true

1.4. may

1.4.1. polite requests

1.4.1.1. used only with I,WE

1.4.1.1.1. may i borrow your pen?

1.4.1.1.2. yes, you may

1.4.1.1.3. no, you may not

1.4.2. formal permission

1.4.2.1. you may leave the class .

1.4.3. certainty

1.4.3.1. present

1.4.3.1.1. where is Bayan? she may be at the library

1.4.3.2. past

1.4.3.2.1. she may have been at the library

1.5. might

1.5.1. polite requests

1.5.1.1. might me i borrow your book ?

1.5.1.2. yes,of course

1.5.1.3. no, you might not

1.5.2. certainty

1.5.2.1. present

1.5.2.1.1. wher is Marya ? she might be at the school

1.5.2.2. past

1.5.2.2.1. she might have been at the school

1.6. ought to

1.6.1. advisability

1.6.1.1. present

1.6.1.1.1. i ought to study tonight.

1.6.1.2. past

1.6.1.2.1. i ought to have studied last night,but i didn't

1.6.2. expectation

1.6.2.1. future

1.6.2.1.1. she ought to do well on the test tomorrow .

1.6.2.2. past

1.6.2.2.1. she ought to done well on the test.

1.7. shall

1.7.1. future

1.7.1.1. i shall go to the party.

1.7.2. only with we or I

1.7.3. polite question to make a suggestion

1.7.3.1. shall i open the door?

1.7.3.2. yes, of course

1.7.3.3. no, the wither is not good.

1.8. should

1.8.1. examples

1.8.1.1. you should study hard.

1.8.1.2. should i study hard ?

1.8.1.3. yes,you should

1.8.1.4. no, you shouldn't

1.8.2. advisability

1.9. will

1.9.1. polite requests

1.9.1.1. will you bring my cote?

1.9.1.2. sure

1.9.1.3. i would like to bring it ,but i am busy

1.9.2. willingness

1.9.2.1. the bell's ringing. i'll open the door

1.9.3. certainty

1.9.3.1. she will be here at 6:00

1.10. must

1.10.1. necessity

1.10.1.1. present

1.10.1.1.1. all student must study for the exam.

1.10.1.2. past

1.10.1.2.1. i had to go to the party yesterday.

1.10.2. prohipition (negative)

1.10.2.1. you must not smoke in the plane.

1.10.3. certainty

1.10.3.1. present

1.10.3.1.1. tamadhur is not in class .she must be sick.

1.10.3.2. past

1.10.3.2.1. tamadhur must have been sick yesterday.

1.11. would

1.11.1. polite requests

1.11.1.1. asking permission

1.11.1.1.1. would you mind if i closed the AC?

1.11.1.1.2. yes, i  would mind

1.11.1.1.3. no ,not at all

1.11.1.2. asking some one to do something

1.11.1.2.1. would you mind closing the door?

1.11.1.2.2. sure

1.11.1.2.3. yes ,i would mind

1.11.2. preeference

1.11.2.1. present

1.11.2.1.1. i would rather go to the bark than stay home.

1.11.2.2. past

1.11.2.2.1. i would rather have gone to the bark .

1.11.3. repeated action in the past

1.11.3.1. when i as a child,i would visit my grandparents every weekend .

1.11.4. polite for 'want'(with like)

1.11.4.1. present

1.11.4.1.1. i would like a cake,please.

1.11.5. unfulfilled wish

1.11.5.1. past

1.11.5.1.1. i would have liked an apples,but there were none in the home.

2. phrasal modals +infinitive

2.1. be able to

2.1.1. ability

2.1.2. examples

2.1.2.1. present

2.1.2.1.1. i am able to clean the room.

2.1.2.2. future

2.1.2.2.1. i will be able to clean the room.

2.1.2.3. past

2.1.2.3.1. i was able to clean the room .

2.2. be going to

2.2.1. prediction

2.2.1.1. future

2.2.1.1.1. i am going to be here at 7 :00 pm .

2.2.2. definite plan

2.2.2.1. future

2.2.2.1.1. i am going to clean my home

2.2.3. unfulfilled intention

2.2.3.1. past

2.2.3.1.1. i was going to my home ,but i didn't have time

2.3. be supposed to

2.3.1. expectation

2.3.1.1. the party is supposed to begin at 8:00

2.3.2. unfulfilled expectation

2.3.2.1. the party was supposed to begin at 8:00 ,but it began at 9:00.

2.4. have to

2.4.1. necessity

2.4.1.1. present

2.4.1.1.1. i have to study for the exam today.

2.4.1.2. past

2.4.1.2.1. i had to study for the exam yesterday.

2.4.2. lack of necessity

2.4.2.1. present

2.4.2.1.1. i don't have to study for the exam today.

2.4.2.2. past

2.4.2.2.1. i didn't have to study for the exam yesterday.

2.5. have got to

2.5.1. necessity

2.5.1.1. present

2.5.1.1.1. i have go to go to class today.

2.5.1.2. past

2.5.1.2.1. i had to go to class yesterday.

3. express

3.1. necessary

3.2. advisable

3.3. permissible

3.4. possible