Teaching, Learning & Development 5015Q

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Teaching, Learning & Development 5015Q da Mind Map: Teaching, Learning & Development 5015Q

1. Week Two: Late August: Considering Developmental Differences

1.1. Development

1.1.1. Development Changes Physical Changes Balance Motor Skills Cognitive Changes Thinking Decision Making Views Social Changes Behaviours Relationships

1.1.2. Importance of Developmental Principles Apply to all students in all grades Developmental differences exist not only among children in the same grade but also within some children. Knowing the where each student is developmentally will help me determine the best teaching methods to use. Provide teachers with a better understanding of the learning process.

1.1.3. 5 Principle of Development Follows an orderly and logical progression I will need to teach the basics before moving on to more complex topics. A gradual and progressive process I can teach in a gradual and progressive process by creating a lesson plan that allows for instruction and practice. Following my instruction I will allow time for students to collaborate with their classmates to practice some of the concepts that have been taught before I move on to the next topic of study. Involves quantitative and qualitative changes I will focus on both how students know and how much students know. Individuals develop at different rates Results from the combinatorial influences of genetics and environment I will recognize my role in influencing students.

1.1.4. Teaching Considerations Teach topics in respective learning progression Assessment Cycle Allow time for material to be fully understood Improve how student know It is normal for students to learn at different rates Development is a critical context for everything. I need to understand what is normal for the age group.For example, a three year old having a tantrum is normal but at sixteen year old having a tantrum is not. The teacher must recognize their potential to positively or negatively affect a students academic and social potential

1.2. Six Influential Developmental Theorists

1.2.1. Piaget Described how cognitive development and learning take place Four Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor (0-2) Preoperational (2-6/7) Concrete Operations (6/7-11/12) Formal Operations (11/12- adulthood) In constant desire for equilibrium Moving from disequilibrium to equilibrium leads to more intelligent behaviours.

1.2.2. Vygotsky Importance to student constructed knowledge Children learn better when they receive some assistance Scaffolding

1.2.3. Chomsky How and why language develops Humans have a language acquisition device

1.2.4. Erikson How sense of self develops Lifelong process of establishing who we are and how we relate to others 8 universal needs of all individuals at different stages in their lives

1.2.5. Kohlberg How morality develops Each stage of moral reasoning is more complex than the previous stage and that most individual progress through he stages in much of the same order

1.2.6. Bronfenbrenner How different spheres of influence affect an individuals social development Most prominent description of the influences that environmental context have on the social development of individuals. Ecological Theory Immediate sphere of influence for students.

1.3. Video: Adora Svitak

1.3.1. Reciprocal

1.3.2. Students construct their own understanding Teachers should facilitate a classroom where children can express their creativity. In my classroom I would like to see and hear meaningful conversations between students, as it demonstrates engagement.

1.3.3. Imagination and creativity

1.4. Video: Carole Dweck

1.4.1. Fixed Mindset Example: "I will always be horrible at math"

1.4.2. Growth Mindset Example: "Math is challenging for me but with hard work I can succeed" The power of "yet" You don't understand math yet More likely to engage, process the error, and learn from the error. Value the process Example: Fixed to growth mindset For most of my education I have entered math courses with a fixed mindset. I have always said, “ I am horrible at math and I do not have a math brain”. In a way I didn’t want to seek help from my friends because I would just get frustrated and it took me a long time to grasp any mathematical concept. I was always scared about failure because I wanted to go to university and I needed math to do that. I did not want to go to the applied level. When I started university I had my first exam and it was a math exam. As soon as I finished the exam I knew that I had failed. This was very disappointing because I had worked very hard to prepare for it. I called my mom and told her I didn’t think I could stay in the course and I would have to switch programs because I could not pass math. She told me to stay in and try and find a tutor. Once I started working with tutor my mindset began to change from “ I can’t learn math” to “math is challenging for me but with the right help I can understand it”. I worked with my tutor once a week and I received an 80% on my next math exam in that course. After my change in mindset I completed 2 more university math courses where I succeeded in both.

2. Week One: Early August: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

2.1. Reflective Practice

2.1.1. Definition: A teacher who chooses to analyze and reflect on their practice and to assess the effects of their teaching. Questions I can ask myself after teaching a lesson. What could I do differently if I re-taught this lesson? Were the students engaged? Which students benefited from this lesson? Which students did not benefit from this lesson?

2.1.2. Defining characteristic of a truly professional teacher. Most important element of teaching

2.1.3. Moral responsibility to best serve the students.

2.2. Educational Psychology

2.2.1. Definition: Understanding of the psychological principles that govern the interactive human behaviours involved in the teaching and learning process.

2.2.2. Schwab's 4 Commonplaces of Meaningful Education Teacher Student Topic Setting

2.2.3. Common Naive Perspectives on Education Teacher x Topic Fails to take student needs into account. Not engaging Teacher x Student Focuses too heavily on students emotional needs at the expense of curricular standards. Not purposeful

2.2.4. 9 Foundational Topics within Educational Psychology Learning and Cognition How do students think and learn best? Development What learning material is appropriate for the age group I am teaching? Social and Cultural Influences How does the culture of the students in my class influence their learning? Motivation What activities are engaging to students? Behaviour and Classroom Management What will the expectation be in my classroom? Individual Differences How can I teach to different student's strengths and weaknesses? Assessment and Evaluation What can I put in place to most accurately determine if the students have learned what has been presented to them? Teaching and Instruction What is the most appropriate and engaging teaching method I can use to present the material to the students? Psychological Foundations of Curricula What are the preferred methods for teaching particular skills?

2.2.5. Research Approaches Quantitative Descriptive Experimental Qualitative Idiographiic Ethnographic

2.2.6. Process of Conducting Research Step 1: Observation Step 2: Formation of Questions Step 3: Application of Research Methods Step 4: Development of Guiding Principles Step 5: Development of Theories

2.3. Planning

2.3.1. Careful Consideration of: What is going to be taught The order in which it will be taught Teaching Methods Teaching Environment Assessment Styles

2.3.2. Learning Experiences I need to offer a variety of experiences for students to acquire the knowledge I present to them.

2.3.3. Types of Planning Curricular Planning Top -down Approach Three Elements of Curricular Planning Instructional Planning

2.3.4. "Effective learning happens in classrooms when freedom is planned for" - Learners in the Drivers Seat

2.4. Ten Best Teaching Practices

2.4.1. Teach for Understanding,

2.4.2. Address Multiple Goals Simultaneously

2.4.3. Employ Inquiry Models

2.4.4. Engage Students I believe that this is the most important teaching practice because if the students are not engaged in the material then they are not learning.

2.4.5. Design Authentic Activities

2.4.6. Include Debriefing

2.4.7. Work with Artifacts

2.4.8. Foster Metacognition and Self-regulated Learning

2.4.9. Be Aware of Trajectories, Misconceptions and Representations

2.4.10. Recognize Social Aspects of Learning

3. Week Three: Views of Learning- Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivists

3.1. Cognitive Learning Theory

3.1.1. Theorists Piaget 4 Developmental Stages and the cognitive process associated with each stage Bloom Hierarchical order of the cognitive processes involved in learning Bruner Development of conceptual understanding, cognitive skills and learning strategies Ausubel Learning must be meaningful to be effective and permanent

3.1.2. Internal Processing Focuses on mental processes rather than obersvable behaviour

3.1.3. Teaching/Instruction Organized, sequenced, and presented in a manner that is meaningful to the learner Example: Lesson hook Chunking Information Flipped Classroom

3.1.4. Learning Outcomes Critical thinking Knowledge retention Meaningful learning

3.1.5. Tools Visual Aids Review Mind Maps Media

3.2. Social Cultural/Constructivist Approach

3.2.1. Student Centred Students are active participants in their learning Active engagement Discovery learning

3.2.2. Past Experiences Prior knowledge

3.2.3. Reflection How did I do? What could I have done differently Metacognition Goal setting

3.2.4. Environment Safe classroom Environment I consider this to be very important. If students do not feel safe they will not learn. Value all opinions

3.3. Behavioural Approach

3.3.1. Children are born as blank slates Behaviour can be controlled through reinforcement Challenging behaviour occurs when the student's environment becomes too demanding

3.3.2. Theorists Pavlov Classical Conditioning Skinner Operant Conditioning

3.3.3. Lecture: Big Bang Theory Video Insert video here

3.4. Lecture: Classroom Strategies

3.4.1. Number Heads

3.4.2. Designated group roles Leader Recorder Timer Information sharers

3.4.3. Graphic organizers

3.4.4. Gallery walks

4. Week Four: First Week of School: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

4.1. Classroom Management

4.1.1. Requires a comprehensive approach approach with explicit rules and appropriate consequences

4.1.2. Process-outcome Research Students learn better and more efficiently in environments that are orderly and psychologically secure.

4.1.3. Proactive Strategy

4.1.4. Dynamic Classroom Management Incorporates the most current research principles available in the discipline. 5 Global Principles Develop caring, supportive relationships with and among students Organize and implement instruction in ways that optimize students' access to learning Use group management methods that encourage students' engagement in academic tasks Promote the development of students' social skills and self-regulation. Use appropriate interventions to assist student with behaviour problems Fundamental Principles All students have the skills to behave appropriately; they are just not using them or being encouraged to use them properly. How a teacher constructs and maintains order in the classroom is as important as whether or not order is achieved. Teachers should provide students with, and engage students in, explicit cognitive strategies for: Discourses teachers need to use to convey their intentions Explicit clarification of what students are expected to do Collaborative and collective emphasis by teachers and students on before-the-fact problem prevention An emphasis on classroom management as an integral part of instruction Results in more positive student behaviours, enhanced psychological security and better teaching and learning

4.2. Video Information

4.2.1. Plus Skills matter but motivation matters more Schools must now provide social, emotional intervention hand in hand with academic education.

4.2.2. Minus Spending more money than every before in education but we are getting worse results 1.2 million high school dropout … 4% of those dropouts are considered to be intellectually gifted Classroom design for the “average student” Average hurts everyone because every student has a jagged learning profile

4.2.3. Interesting No longer an advantage to knowing more than the person next to you because they can Google it.

4.3. Strategies to Nurture Fundamental Student Needs

4.3.1. Provide an orientation period at the beginning of the school year In my professional practice this would included handing out a course outline to the students. It could also involved having the student get to know the school and classroom resources that are available to them.

4.3.2. Develop realistic expectations and goals

4.3.3. Reinforce responsibility by providing opportunities to contribute

4.3.4. Provide opportunities to make choices and decisions

4.3.5. Establish self-discipline by learning to discipline effectively I believe that discipline will be an area that I will need to improve in. However some effective strategies that I have learnt include: Proximity The pause The look Deal with the problem not the solution

4.3.6. Assist students to deal more effectively with mistakes

4.4. How to Diminish Behavioural Problems

4.4.1. Engage the students!

4.5. Resilient Student

4.5.1. Schools must provide social, emotional intervention hand-in-hand with academic education. Good self esteem Optimistic Personal control Motivated to learn

5. Week Five: Mid-September: Making Instructional Decisions

5.1. Universal Instructional Design (UID)

5.1.1. Advocates for physical spaces and objects that consider the needs of all users and especially those of individuals with disabilities

5.1.2. Equitable accessibility and utility

5.1.3. Principles Create a welcoming classroom environment Determine the essential academic components to be taught/learned and the preferred behavioural outcomes. Provide students with both clear expectations for learning and feedback about their learning. Implement a variety of topically suitable instructional methods Provide a variety of ways for students to demonstrate what they have learned Make appropriate use of technology to enhance learning Encourage and initiate teacher-student and student-student discourses about learning topics/tasks and behavioural expectations.

5.1.4. Three Guiding Principles Provide multiple means of representation Provide multiple means of action and expression Provide multiple means of engagement

5.2. Cognitive Strategy

5.2.1. Purposeful and controllable thinking process that actively promotes the understanding and retention of knowledge

5.3. Metacognition

5.3.1. Executive thinking processes such as planning, gauging, comprehension, and evaluating, that actively become engaged when the brain is required to think or learn.

5.3.2. Processes that achieve specific academic goals

5.3.3. Discussing and encouraging the use of metacognitive and cognitive strategies enhances student autonomy, student learning, and student motivation.

5.4. Motivational Underpinnings

5.4.1. Tasks I can engage students' motivations to learn with challenging and meaningful tasks that have purpose.

5.4.2. Instructional Practices Teach learning and problem solving strategies and how to use them

5.4.3. Classroom Relationships Students report more positive motivational outcomes when they sense that their teachers care about them as well as their academic success.

5.4.4. Intrinsic motivation What makes people do things when they do not have to do anything.

5.4.5. Extrinsic motivation What makes people do what they do not really want to do.

5.5. Direct Instruction

5.5.1. Explicit teaching

5.5.2. Systematic instructional method that is often portrayed as teaching small amounts of information and providing lots of practice so that students can master basic facts and skills. I need to have well-developed and carefully planned lessons with clear learning objectives I should use some form of explanation (lecture or demonstration) Have students complete problems or exercises related to lecture material Review related material Explicitly describe new material Allow for guided and independent practice Provide feedback Provide common thread review at the end of related lessons of units.

5.6. Diagnostic Assessment

5.6.1. Starting point for all instruction

5.7. Video: Letting Students Hack Their Lesson Plan

5.7.1. Group focused

5.7.2. Microphone

5.7.3. WemCam Used to communicate across the world Teaches international relations Higher order of thinking

5.7.4. Let the kids construct their own learning

6. Week Six: Late September: Knowing that the Students Know

6.1. Diagnostic Assessment

6.1.1. Establishing the students' current level of knowledge and skills I can do this in my class my making a Kahoot quiz at the beginning of the unit. Based on results from the quiz I will be able to see what concepts students, as whole, understand more or less. After I have completed the unit I could make a similar quiz and have the students complete it prior to the unit test.

6.1.2. Helps determine performance level and direction of teaching. Is there a behavioural disorder? Are there motivational issues? Why are some students appearing to have difficulty with academics? Would some of the students benefit from assistive technology?

6.1.3. What prior knowledge do the students have?

6.1.4. What misconceptions do the students have?

6.1.5. What are the students backgrounds, culture, and interests

6.2. Backward Design

6.2.1. Put assessment considerations ahead of instructional considerations when planning their teaching.

6.2.2. What do I want my students to learn? How will I determine whether or not they have learned? What will I teach?

6.2.3. Core elements of backwards design Instructional activities that connect to and build understanding Assessment that deliberately measures student progress toward curricular goals The development of a variety of ongoing formal and informal assessment tools The articulation of why certain assessments are appropriate and for what purpose

6.2.4. Common Thread of Learning Objectives Philosophical objectives found in mission statements Global objectives found in curriculum guides Broad learning objectives used in unit plans Specific learning objectives Assessment questions Topical unit and lesson plans Instructional methods

6.3. Blooms Taxonomy

6.3.1. Hierarchical classification of cognitive learning objectives

6.3.2. Level 1 Knowledge Remembering something factual

6.3.3. Level 2 Comprehension Understanding Information

6.3.4. Level 3 Application Being able to use information to solve a problem

6.3.5. Level 4 Analysis Breaking concepts into parts

6.3.6. Level 5 Synthesis Bringing ideas together; generating/creating new ideas from other related ideas

6.3.7. Level 6 Evaluation Judging the respective worth/ value of something

6.3.8. All forms of thinking can be classified into six basic cognitive processes Remembering Understanding Applying Analyzing Creating Evaluating

6.4. Learner Centered

6.4.1. Children construct new knowledge by building upon prior knowledge

6.5. Knowledge Centered

6.5.1. Teachers help students build a bridge from prior knowledge to new knowledge I could do this in my classroom by encouraging students to experiment and discover. I would provide the materials for them to experiment with.

6.6. Assessment Centered

6.6.1. Emphasize concepts behind knowledge

6.7. Community Centered

6.7.1. Respectful learning environments where individual ideas are welcomed

6.8. Video: Understanding by Design

6.8.1. Just because students know things does not mean they understand it

6.8.2. Backwards design- we need to cover big topics, plan, and organize curriculum in a way that students are able to transfer knowledge I believe that we should teach and assess for understanding and transfer. Students should be able to use what they have learned in my classroom in the real world environment.

7. Week Seven: Early December: Individual Differences-Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

7.1. Civil Rights Movement: 1960

7.1.1. Movement to provide an appropriate education for students with special needs evolved from the civil rights movement

7.1.2. Prior to the civil rights movement, specialized educational services throughout North America were minimally available, and if available, were mostly delivered in institutional settings

7.2. Successful Special Education

7.2.1. Specialized instruction based on proper assessment of children's ability Without proper assessment teachers are guessing

7.3. Assessment

7.3.1. Strengths

7.3.2. Deficits

7.3.3. Abilities Cognitive Academic Behavioural

7.4. Who Receives Special Education?

7.4.1. High-incidence exceptionalities Include learning disabilities, behavioural disorders, giftedness and intellectual disabilities

7.4.2. Low-incidence exceptionalities Typically include autism, hearing and visual impairments, serious health impairments, and multiple disabilities

7.5. Controversies Surrounding Special Education

7.5.1. Inclusion Modern perspective advocates that all students with exceptionalities should be educated within the regular classrooms to he greatest extent possible Regular classroom will be the first placement option Teachers should know How to develop a supportive classroom The principles of child development The nature of various disabilities How to raise pertinent questions and communicate professionally about serious educational issues that require debate How to develop a basic repertoire of strategies and adaptions How to observe, monitor and assess students Provide direct instruction on how children should interact with peers Communicate with parents and professionals about the findings of assessments

7.5.2. Definitional Terms Categories of exceptionality are somehow stigmatizing labels that do little to advance the child's education

7.6. Educational Gaps

7.6.1. Disparity in achievements between groups

7.7. Learning Gaps

7.7.1. Gaps between students actual achievement and potential for achievement

7.8. Effective Instruction Approaches

7.8.1. Universal Design for Learning

7.8.2. Differentiated Instruction

7.8.3. A tiered approach to prevention and intervention

7.9. Video: Ken Robinson: Do Schools Kill Creativity

7.9.1. Creativity is as important as literacy

7.9.2. If you are not prepared to be wrong you will never come up with anything original We stigmatize mistakes Educating out of creativity capacities

7.9.3. Re-think the principles that we are educating our student's on

8. Week Eight: Early February: Socio-Cultural Considerations

8.1. Diverse Learners

8.1.1. Banks and colleagues advocate that teachers adhere the to the following: When teachers use knowledge about social, cultural, and language backgrounds of their students when planning and implementing instruction, the academic achievement of students can increase Most teachers are European descent from middle-class backgrounds and speak mainly English, while many of their students are from minorities Teachers need to be aware of the embedded structural conditions

8.2. Socio-Cultural Perspective

8.2.1. Understand persons as actually constituted by socio-cultural practices

8.2.2. Differences within identified Groups There are as many differences and degrees of differences between individuals from within any of these groups as there are between group members and non-group members.

8.3. Critical Consciousness

8.3.1. Political values and beliefs

8.3.2. An ideological clarity

8.3.3. A socio-cultural consciousness Recognizing that peoples way of thinking are significantly influenced by race, class, gender and language

8.4. Building a Culturally Responsive Practice

8.4.1. Teachers should know how to: Examine their own cultural assumptions to understand how these concepts shape starting points for practice How has my personal background influenced how I view history. For example, when teaching about Indigenous peoples I need to understand how my cultural background has played a role in colonization. I need to be aware of this to practice my teaching in a de-colonizing manner. How to inquire into the backgrounds of their students so they can use what they learn to inform instructional decisions How develop a broad range of teaching strategies and approaches that meet the needs of culturally diverse learners How to interpret cultural symbols from one frame reference to another

8.5. Stereotype Threat

8.5.1. The fear of existing either in your own eyes or in the eyes of others, that your behaviour will confirm an existing negative stereotype about your identity group.

8.6. Socio-economic status

8.6.1. Indicates an individual's social class based on education, occupation and income Higher one's SES the greater the likelihood that average or higher levels of academic achievement will be attained.

8.6.2. Low SES Development is at risk Economic hardships Scarcity of resources

8.7. Increasing Diversity in Schools

8.7.1. Languages spoken

8.7.2. Aboriginal students Protective Factors Early intervention Resiliency Positive self-image Family engagement Community involvement

8.7.3. One-parent families

8.7.4. Same sex parents

8.7.5. New comers to Canada

8.7.6. Religious practices

8.8. Student Dilemmas

8.8.1. Individualism Act within a unique identity and exclusive purpose

8.8.2. Collectivism Act within a shared identity and common purpose

8.9. Instrumental Value of Education

8.9.1. Degree to which students believe that doing well in school produced benefits

8.10. Video: Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie: The Danger of a Single Story

8.10.1. Problem with stereotypes is that they are incomplete

8.10.2. Misunderstandings are universal

8.10.3. As a teacher I should seek out alternative stories. I should not present all material from a western perspective. It is beneficial to provide a wide range of sources for my students to read.

9. Week Nine: End of School Year

9.1. Standardized Tests

9.1.1. Administered to large groups of people

9.1.2. A test that contains the same questions for all test takers

9.1.3. Is administered to all individuals in the same fashion, under the same conditions, and within a specified time

9.1.4. Is always scored in a systematic and uniform way

9.1.5. Views Best way to hold educators accountable for student learning and the best way to make sure school systems and teachers are executing their responsibilities. Tests are biased in that they only examine certain types of knowledge or skills and/or that they produce different types of results for different groups High-stakes nature of standardized achievement tests is stressful for students Teachers might me pressured to teach to the test Educators also argue the provincial standardized testing does not increase student learning and it does not improve motivation. As a current educator I believe this to be true. Tests are not derived from the same curricular objectives as the subjects/ course that teachers teach The results from wide-scale assessments are reported to educators far too late to be of any instructional benefit Test security can become breached It could loose validity and must be replaced

9.1.6. Purposes Determine student performance in the essential elements of schools Monitor achievement trends over time Identify and/ or modify the instructional methods that best produce student progress Evaluate educational programs Hold districts, schools, and teachers accountable

9.1.7. Improving Standardized Tests The test must assess important curricular goals The curricular goals must be teachable The assessed knowledge and skills must be clearly described and accurately reflect effective learning The test must be specific enough to directly guide instruction The assessment process must be minimally intrusive on classrooms

9.1.8. Interpreting Test Results Does the score make sense? Does the score reveal growth in learning Did the student just have a bad day

9.2. Aptitude Tests

9.2.1. Used when conducting psycho-educational assessments

9.2.2. Specific ability test that assesses a student's specific cognitive, social, and behavioural skills

9.3. Criterion- referenced Tests

9.3.1. Student's score is reflective of how well he or she performed relative to established standards or criteria

9.4. Norm-referenced Tests

9.4.1. A student's score is reflective of how well he or she did in comparison to all other students who completed the same test

9.4.2. Student is compared against the norm