POL- 2

American Government

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POL- 2 by Mind Map: POL- 2

1. 2.2 The Articles of Confederation

1.1. Roots of the constitution(video)

1.1.1. Britain was busy fighting internal turmoil and wars with France and Spain. As a result, the colonies developed experience in managing their economics.

1.1.2. Americans wished a Republic= people elected hold power, not monarchs. Many worried that a people could not keep control and order. Others worried the opposite, even elected people could bear too much power. As a result, the Articles of Confederation was created. an alliance of sovereign states held together by a weak central government First Constitution. .Power resides on the state, limited power. Final draft: November 1777. enforced from March 1, 1781, until 1789 what was the problem ?

2. The Constitution and Its Origins


2.1.1. important contributors John Locke human beings, not God, had created government. Social contract= small part of citizens freedom for protection

2.1.2. In 1215, King John signed Magna Carta What is the importance of Magna Carta? Right to consent taxation supported by Magna Carta and Bill of Rights

2.2. What influenced the constitution?

2.2.1. The English Bill of Rights, heavily influenced by Locke’s ideas,


2.3.1. Results of the 7 years war: The colonists had fought on behalf of Britain, and many colonists expected that after the war they would be allowed to settle on land west of the Appalachian Mountains that had been taken from France but that was not the case and they were forbidden to purchase lands there.

2.3.2. What acts by the Parlament einfuriated the colonists= -- pay with gold and silver to British merchants instead of paper currency. 3. unjustified taxes Stamp Act1765 = which required that almost all paper goods, such as diplomas, land deeds, contracts, and newspapers, have revenue stamps placed on them. Townshend Acts (1767), taxes on many everyday objects such as glass, tea, and paint. Events that took place= 1770: Boston Massacre 1773 Boston Tea Party= protests against the monopoly on tea to the British East India Company.

3. The Iroquois Confederacy and American Government (video)

3.1. 6 tribes that occupied what is now upstate New York

4. What went wrong between Colonists and the British?

4.1. ex: stamp tax

5. Shays’ Rebellion: Symbol of Disorder and Impetus to Act

5.1. Led by Daniel Shays the heavily indebted farmers marched to a local courthouse demanding relief.

6. 1787 Philadelphia decided to create an entirely new government= US Constitution

6.1. May 1787= Constitutional Convention: What questions needed response?

6.1.1. Slavery North= believed slavery was unconstitutional and against christianity South= supported slavery

6.2. Representation: Small States vs. Large States

6.2.1. large states, ex Virginia proposed a bicameral legislature consisting of two houses = The number of a state’s representatives in each house was to be based on the state’s population.

6.2.2. New Jersey Plan, called for a unicameral legislature with one house, in which each state would have one vote.

6.3. Sep 1787 they created, the U.S. Constitution = give solution for both supporters of strong central government and sovereign states.

6.3.1. The Great Compromise = suggested by Roger Sherman of Connecticut. Congress was given great power, including the power to tax, maintain an army and a navy, and regulate trade and commerce. The Three-Fifths Compromise and the Debates over Slavery = 60 % of slaves were counted for purposes of representation 20 year period to abolish slavery Basic Principles of the constitution

7. Federal Power vs. State Power

7.1. federal system= national

7.1.1. enumerated powers

7.1.2. reserved powers= assigned to the states marriage intrastate commerce laws on commerce, drug use,

8. 2.4 The Ratification of the Constitution

8.1. Why some states did not want to ratify the constitution?

8.1.1. t it did not guarantee protection of individual liberties such as religious freedom and right to bear weapons. What solution was propossed? Bill of rights

8.1.2. There was fear to place to much power in the hands of one man

8.1.3. States courts could understand better the cases in front of them and not federal courts

8.2. The ratification campaign

8.2.1. Federalists= supporters 1787,Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote The Federalist and now known as The Federalist Papers

8.2.2. Order in which states ratified the Constitution

8.2.3. Anti-Federalists= no supporters - They believed a strong central government would give more rights to the rich. ex- Patrick Henry believed too much power in central government could lead to Aristocracy - They believed more taxes would be imposed.

9. 2.5 Constitutional Change

9.1. James Madison, a member of Congress from Virginia, took the lead in drafting nineteen potential changes to the Constitution.In 1791, these first ten amendments were added to the Constitution and became known as the Bill of Rights.

9.1.1. The protections for religion, speech, the press, and assembly that are granted by the First Amendment

9.1.2. The Ninth Amendment guarantees that liberties extend beyond those described in the preceding documents. ex- protection to privacy.

9.1.3. The Tenth Amendment= states possess all powers not explicitly assigned to the federal government by the Constitution. This guarantee protects states’ reserved powers to regulate such things as marriage, divorce, and intrastate transportation and commerce.

9.1.4. the Seventeenth Amendment, ratified in 1913, gave voters the right to directly elect U.S. senators.

9.1.5. The Twentieth Amendment, which was ratified in 1933 during the Great Depression, moved the date of the presidential inauguration from March to January.

9.1.6. The Twenty- Second Amendment, added in 1955, limits the president to two terms in office,

9.1.7. Twenty-Seventh Amendment, first submitted for ratification in 1789, regulates the implementation of laws regarding salary increases or decreases for members of Congress.

9.1.8. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in the United States.

9.1.9. The Fourteenth Amendment granted citizenship to African Americans and equal protection under the law regardless of race or color. It also prohibited states from depriving their residents of life, liberty, or property without a legal proceeding.

9.1.10. The Fifteenth and Nineteenth (1920) Amendments extended the right to vote.

9.2. declare war, impose taxes, coin and regulate currency, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, raise and maintain an army and a navy, maintain a post office, make treaties with foreign nations and with Native American tribes, and make laws regulating the naturalization of immigrants.