Task-Based Language Teaching

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Task-Based Language Teaching by Mind Map: Task-Based Language Teaching

1. Background

1.1. Task-Based Language Teaching refers to an approach based on the use of tasks as the core unit of planning and instruction in language teaching

1.1.1. Activities that involve real communication are essential for languagelearning.

1.1.2. Activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful taskspromote learning.

1.1.3. Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learningprocess.

2. Approach

2.1. Theory of language

2.1.1. TBLT is motivated primarily by a theory of learning rather than a theoryof language. However, several assumptions about the nature of languagecan be said to underlie current approaches to TBLT. Language is primarily a means of making meaning Multiple models of language inform TBI Lexical units are central in language use andlanguage learning “Conversation” is the central focus of languageand the keystone of language acquisition

2.2. Theory of learning

2.2.1. TBI shares the general assumptions about the nature of language learning underlying Communicative Language Teaching . How-ever some additional learning principles play a central role in TBLT theory. Tasks provide both the input and output processingnecessary for language acquisition Task activity and achievement are motivational Learning difficulty can be negotiated and finetuned for particular pedagogical purposes

3. Design

3.1. Objectives

3.1.1. The resulting twenty-four objectives then became the frame-work within which a variety of related activities were proposed. Thecomponents of these activities were defined in the syllabus under theheadings of Situation, Stimulus, Product, Tasks, and Cognitive Process.

3.2. The syllabus

3.2.1. A TBLT syllabus, therefore, specifies the tasks that should becarried out by learners within a program. 1. real-world tasks, which are designed to practice or rehearse thosetasks that are found to be important in a needs analysis and turn out tobe important and useful in the real world 2. pedagogical tasks, which have a psycholinguistic basis in SLA theoryand research but do not necessarily reflect real-world tasks

3.3. Types of learning and teaching activities

3.3.1. It proposes six task types built on more or less traditional knowl-edge hierarchies. 1. listing 2. ordering and sorting 3. comparing 4. problem solving 5. sharing personal experiences 6. creative tasks

3.4. Teacher roles

3.4.1. Selector and sequencer of tasks

3.4.2. Preparing learners for tasks

3.4.3. Consciousness-raising

3.5. Learner Roles

3.5.1. Group participant

3.5.2. Monitor

3.5.3. Risk-taker and innovator

3.6. The role of instructional materials

3.6.1. Pedagogic materials

3.6.2. Realia

4. Procedure

4.1. Needs analysis identified target tasks the studentsneeded to be able to carry out in English, including

4.1.1. – basic social survival transactions

4.1.2. – face-to-face informal conversations

4.1.3. – telephone conversations– interviews on the campus

4.1.4. – service encounters

5. Conclusion

5.1. TBLT, offers a different rationale for the use of tasks as well as different criteria for the design and use of tasks.