CKD Renal Impairement

Renal Impairment

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CKD Renal Impairement by Mind Map: CKD Renal Impairement

1. Presentations

1.1. Non Specific

1.1.1. Tiredness

1.1.2. Lethargy/Fatigue

1.1.3. Weight Imbalance

1.2. Specific

1.2.1. Filtration Defect

1.2.1.1. Polyuria

1.2.1.2. Hematuria

1.2.1.3. Oedema

1.2.1.4. oliguria

1.2.2. Protein Imbalance

1.2.2.1. proteinuria

1.2.2.2. albuminuria

1.2.2.3. hypo-albumaemia

1.2.2.4. hypo-proteinaemia

1.2.3. Ca Metabolism

1.2.3.1. hyperparathyroidism

1.2.3.2. osteoporosis

1.2.3.3. chondromalacia

1.2.4. Toxic Metabolites/Drug Interactions

1.2.5. Uraemia

2. Diagnostic Workup

2.1. Biochemistry

2.1.1. Urinalysis

2.1.1.1. Albumin/Creatinine Ratio

2.1.1.2. Heamaturia

2.1.1.3. albuminuria

2.1.1.4. Glycosuria

2.1.1.5. ACR

2.1.2. GFR/eGFR

2.1.3. K+

2.1.4. Na+

2.1.5. Acidosis

2.1.6. hypoalbuminaemia

2.2. Haematology

2.2.1. anaemia

2.2.1.1. hypochromic-normochromic

2.2.1.2. microcytic-normocytic anaemia

2.3. Immunology

2.3.1. Antiglomerular Antibodies

2.3.2. autoimmune conditions

2.4. Anatomical Pathology

2.4.1. Biopsy

2.5. Diagnostic Imaging

2.5.1. Ultrasound

2.5.2. CT/MRI

2.5.3. Angiography

3. Management

3.1. Dialysis

3.2. Non-Dialysis

4. Drugs

4.1. ACE Inhibitors:

4.1.1. Lisinopril/Ramipril/Captopril

4.2. ARB (angiotensin receptor blockers)

4.2.1. Candesartan/Valsartan

4.3. Antibiotics:

4.3.1. Aminoglycosides

4.3.2. Cephalosporins

4.3.3. Amphotericin B

4.3.4. Bacitracin/Vancomycin

4.4. Chemotherapeutics:

4.4.1. Cisplatin/Carboplatin

4.4.2. Methotrexate.

4.5. Protease Inhibitors Antiviral Drugs (Medicines used to treat HIV)

4.5.1. indinavir (Crixivan)/lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra)/nelfinavir (Viracept)/ritonavir (Norvir)

4.6. Illicit Drugs:

4.6.1. Heroin

4.6.2. Methamphetamine

4.7. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs):

4.7.1. ibuprofen/naproxen/diclofenac/indomethacin/high-dose aspirin

4.8. Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) & H2 Antagonists

4.8.1. Aciphex, Nexium, Prilosec, Prevacid

4.8.2. Pepcid, Tagamet, Zantac

4.9. Supplements

4.9.1. Wormwood oil

4.10. Laxatives

4.10.1. Compounds containing oral sodium phosphate

4.11. Contrast Dyes

4.11.1. Iodinated compounds (CT contrast): Lipiodol/Utlravist

4.11.2. Gadolinium contrast media (sometimes called a MRI contrast media, agents or ‘dyes’)

5. Renal Function Overview

5.1. Blood pressure regulation

5.1.1. Renin-Angiotensin system

5.1.2. Aldosterone

5.1.3. Anti-diuretic Hormone

5.2. Electrolyte Balance

5.2.1. Na+

5.2.2. K+

5.2.3. H+

5.2.4. HCO3-

5.2.5. OTHER Ca+/Mg+/Zn/Cu

5.3. Fluid Balance

5.3.1. Excess fluid

5.3.2. Urine production

5.3.2.1. Produces approx. 1-2 L per day

5.3.3. Fluid replenishment

5.4. Filtration

5.4.1. ~ 12 times every hour or

5.4.2. ~ 200 litres of blood per day

5.4.3. Waste and metabolic byproducts

5.4.4. Drug elimination

5.4.5. toxins.

5.5. Protein retention

5.5.1. Albumin

5.5.2. Globulins

5.5.3. OTHER

5.6. Production of Vitamin D

5.7. Production of Erythropoietin