Ignorance

from Smithson, M. (1985). Toward a Social Theory of Ignorance. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 20:4, 323–346, 20(4), 323-346. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5914.1985.tb00049.x.

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Ignorance by Mind Map: Ignorance

1. Socially constructed

1.1. Like knowledge

1.1.1. has informational aspect

1.1.2. has processing aspect

1.2. but not just the opposite of knowledge

1.2.1. New node

1.3. As important as knowledge

1.3.1. how do people fail to obtain knowledge

1.3.2. how is complete cognitive agreement possible (cognitive unanimity equals lack of ignorance)

1.3.2.1. language is sufficiently specific and unabambiguous that meanings can be unconditionally agree upon by users

1.3.2.1.1. natural languages are notorious for nonspecificity, ambiguity, and interpretive incompleteness

1.3.2.2. there is agreement on methods for reality testing and verification

1.3.2.2.1. Standards for reality testing differ markedly even within the same cultures

1.3.2.3. there are identical and equal opportunities for people to reality test and verify

1.3.2.3.1. people live in second hand worlds and the facticity of those worlds is inherenly infinitely revisable and questionable.

1.3.3. Precusor to all scientific discovery

1.3.3.1. That's interesting, I wonder what caused that

1.4. Social norms against knowing

1.4.1. use human capacity for linguistic distortion, vagueness and ambiguity

1.4.2. for privacy, politeness, tact and the avoidance of conflict

1.4.3. control the opportunities for reality testing and the establishment of proprietary domains for knowledge

1.4.4. Four Categories

1.4.4.1. communicative

1.4.4.2. knowledge-domain establishing

1.4.4.3. reality testing

1.4.4.4. ignorance-promoting

1.4.5. propaganda

1.4.5.1. military

1.4.5.2. religious

1.4.5.3. commercial

1.4.5.4. legal

1.4.5.4.1. super injunctions

1.5. Conspiracy of silence about the conspiracy of silence

2. Has its own vocabulary

2.1. Ignoramus

2.2. meta-ignorance

2.2.1. ignorance of ones own ignorance "If I don't know I don't know, I think I know" "If I don't know I know, I think I don't know.

2.2.1.1. Only perceived from someone else's viewpoint.

2.2.1.1.1. reductio ad absurdum "proof by contradiction

2.2.2. double ignorance

2.3. conscious ignorance

2.4. intentional ignorance

2.4.1. defensive social function

2.4.2. consensual ignorance

2.4.2.1. privacy/secrecy

2.4.2.2. specialized and privileged knowledge

2.4.2.3. ideological pluralism/hegemony

2.4.3. unilateral ignorance

2.5. nescience

2.5.1. opposite of prescience

2.5.2. not knowing something that can’t be known.

2.6. bullshit

2.6.1. course sylabus

3. Definitions

3.1. A is "ignorant" from B's viewpoint if A fails to agree with or show awareness of ideas which B defines as either actually or potentially factually valid

3.1.1. includes anything which B thinks that A should know (but doesn't) and anything which B thinks A mustn't know and and doesn't

3.2. Excludes mere differences in preference or liking

3.3. Based on people's own accounts and judgments about validity

3.4. sociology of scientific knowledge SSK

3.5. Agnotology

3.5.1. the study of ignorance

4. Attributes

4.1. erroneous

4.1.1. cognitively discredited people

4.1.1.1. the insane

4.1.1.2. the naive

4.1.2. distorted or incomplete

4.2. irrelevant

4.2.1. topical irrelevance

4.2.1.1. genius is an ability to perceive connections between things that most people see as irrelevant or unconnected also applies to insanity

4.2.2. undecidability

4.2.2.1. questions that people are unable to designate as true or false because the question of verification is not pertinent

4.2.2.1.1. like fantasy or fiction and designated meaningless or unprovable

4.2.3. taboo

4.2.3.1. compulsorily irrelevant and to be avoided

4.2.3.1.1. maintaining purity

4.3. incompleteness

4.3.1. conscious ignorance preceding learning or discovery

4.3.2. ommission/absence

4.3.2.1. correct cognition is completely missing

4.3.3. vagueness/fuzziness

4.3.3.1. ideas which are imprecise according to some standard of precision

4.3.4. ambiguity/inconsistency

4.3.4.1. oscillation between two or more specific alternative explanations

4.3.5. Surprise events are those that trigger an awareness of ignorance

4.4. neglect/distortion

4.5. cognitive bias

4.5.1. Dunning Krugger Effect

4.5.1.1. Don't know

4.5.1.2. Don't know they don't know

4.5.1.3. Think they do know

4.5.1.4. make bad judgements on the basis of a false sense of superiority

4.5.2. Logical fallacies from Stephen Downes (linked url has examples of each)

4.5.2.1. Fallacies of Distraction

4.5.2.1.1. False dilemma

4.5.2.1.2. From ignorance

4.5.2.1.3. Slippery Slope

4.5.2.1.4. Complex question

4.5.2.2. Appeals to motives in place of support

4.5.2.2.1. Appeal to force

4.5.2.2.2. Appeal to pity

4.5.2.2.3. Consequences

4.5.2.2.4. prejudicial disadvantage

4.5.2.2.5. Popularity

4.5.2.3. Changing the subject

4.5.2.3.1. Attacking the person

4.5.2.3.2. appeal to authority

4.5.2.3.3. Anonymous authority

4.5.2.3.4. Style over substance

4.5.2.4. inductive fallacies

4.5.2.4.1. Hasty generalization

4.5.2.4.2. unrepresentative sample

4.5.2.4.3. false analogy

4.5.2.4.4. slothful induction

4.5.2.4.5. fallacy of exclusion

4.5.2.5. Fallacies involving statistical syllogisms

4.5.2.5.1. Acident

4.5.2.5.2. converse accident

4.5.2.6. Causal fallacies

4.5.2.6.1. Post hoc

4.5.2.6.2. joint effect

4.5.2.6.3. insignificant

4.5.2.6.4. wrong direction

4.5.2.6.5. complex cause

4.5.2.7. Missing the point

4.5.2.7.1. begging the question

4.5.2.7.2. irrelevant conclusion

4.5.2.7.3. straw man

4.5.2.8. Fallacy of ambiquity

4.5.2.8.1. equivocation

4.5.2.8.2. amphiboly

4.5.2.8.3. accent

4.5.2.9. Category errors

4.5.2.9.1. Composition

4.5.2.9.2. Division

4.5.2.10. non sequitur

4.5.2.10.1. affirming the consequent

4.5.2.10.2. denying the antecedent

4.5.2.10.3. inconsistency

4.5.2.11. Syllogistic errors

4.5.2.11.1. Fallacy of four terms

4.5.2.11.2. undistributed middle

4.5.2.11.3. illicit major

4.5.2.11.4. illicit minor

4.5.2.11.5. fallacy of exclusive premises

4.5.2.11.6. fallacy of drawing an affirmative conclusion from a negative premise

4.5.2.11.7. Existential fallacy

4.5.2.12. Fallacies of explanation

4.5.2.12.1. Subverted support

4.5.2.12.2. non-support

4.5.2.12.3. untestability

4.5.2.12.4. Limited scope

4.5.2.12.5. Limited depth

4.5.2.13. Fallacies of definition

4.5.2.13.1. Too broad

4.5.2.13.2. Too narrow

4.5.2.13.3. Failure to elucidate

4.5.2.13.4. Circular definition

4.5.2.13.5. Conflicting conditions

5. Related articles

5.1. Article suggested by Erin

5.2. Manufacturing Doubt:Journalists' role

5.3. Death of the News from an elearnspace entry

5.4. Ignorance important for democracy

5.5. Why we are unaware that we lack the skill to know how unskilled and unaware we are.

5.6. Ignorance and Surprise, Mathias Gross

5.7. Truth management

5.7.1. Kinsey gaffe

5.7.2. Glomar denial

5.7.2.1. I can neither confirm nor deny