Establishing Peace

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Establishing Peace Door Mind Map: Establishing Peace

1. Paris Peace Conference

1.1. Nov 1918

1.2. Big Three dominated discussions about dealing with Germany

1.3. German representatives not allowed to attend discussions

1.4. Lasted for 5 months

2. Why did the 'big Three' have different intentions?

2.1. What did the Germans hope for?

2.1.1. German President

2.1.1.1. Wishes that everyone would put past behind them and work towards a more peaceful future

2.1.1.2. Hopes that others would remember that they have formed a new government.

2.1.1.3. French too responsible for the war

2.2. Were the terms of the treaty fair to Germany?

2.2.1. The main terms of the Treaty of Versailles

2.2.1.1. German territorial losses

2.2.1.1.1. Alsace-Lorraine to France

2.2.1.1.2. Eupen & Malmedy to Belgium

2.2.1.1.3. Northern Schleswig to Denmark

2.2.1.1.4. The Polish Corridor to Poland

2.2.1.1.5. Part of Upper Silesia to Poland

2.2.1.1.6. Danzig to be administered by a international organization.

2.2.1.1.7. Hultschin to Czechoslovakia

2.2.1.1.8. Memel to Lithuania

2.2.1.1.9. Lost all overseas colonies

2.2.1.1.10. Not allowed to form political union with Austria.

2.2.1.1.11. Lost control of Saar (coal-rich region) to French for 15 years, after which goes plebiscite.

2.2.2. Military terms

2.2.2.1. German army restricted to 100 000 professional soldiers

2.2.2.1.1. Ensure that Germany would not be able to build up a large force in event of war.

2.2.2.2. All of Germany's wartime weapoins to be destroyed.

2.2.2.3. Conscription prohibited.

2.2.2.4. Not allowed to have tanks, air force or submarines.

2.2.2.4.1. Limited to 6 battleships and a few smaller ships.

2.2.2.5. Rhineland demiliatarised.

2.2.2.5.1. Allied troops to occupy space for 15 years.

2.2.3. War Guilt Clause

2.2.3.1. Germany had to agree to bear full responsibilty for the war.

2.2.3.2. Had to pay reparations of £6 600 million.

2.3. Were German reactions to the Treaty of Versailles justified?

2.3.1. Viewpoints of the general public

2.3.1.1. Angry/ humiliated

2.3.1.2. Treaty does not stand for right, provokes fresh hatred

2.3.1.3. Allies part responsible.

2.3.1.4. Allies took away everything, how are they expected to make reparations.

2.3.1.5. Should find Kaiser and punich him instead of the new government.

2.3.1.6. Allied leaders are hypocrites

2.3.1.6.1. Talked a lot about self-determintation yet took away that right from the Germans.

2.3.1.7. Germany signing treaty = Germany is a weak nation.

2.4. Were the Allied Powers satisfied with the outcome?

2.4.1. Most people in Allied countires thought that the terms were fair.

2.4.2. Allied leaders argued that Germany imposed much harsher treaty on Russia when Russia wanted to stop fighting in 1917.

2.4.3. Clemenceau

2.4.3.1. Treaty not harsh enough.

2.4.3.2. Feared that France would continue to face threats fron Germany.

2.4.3.3. French people were disappointed with him for not exacting a harsher treaty

2.4.4. Lloyd-George

2.4.4.1. Treaty was harsh.

2.4.4.2. Called it 'great pity'

2.4.4.3. Predicted another war would ocur because its terms had created deep resentment among the Germnas.

2.4.4.4. British public generally happy with terms.

2.4.5. Wilson

2.4.5.1. Treaty too harsh.

2.4.5.2. Agreed to terms only becasue of pressure from Britain and France.

2.5. What other opinions are there on the Treaty of Versailles?

2.5.1. CONTENTIOUS.

3. How effective was the League of Nations?

3.1. Established 10 January 1920.

3.2. What were the main components of the League of Nations?

3.2.1. Council

3.2.1.1. Met 5 times a year on average.

3.2.1.2. Members

3.2.1.2.1. Permanent

3.2.1.2.2. Temporary

3.2.2. Assembly

3.2.2.1. Parliament of all nations.

3.2.2.2. Met once a year.

3.2.2.3. Each nation had one vote

3.2.2.4. Decisions to be unanimous.

3.3. Were the objectives of the League of Nations realistic?

3.3.1. Resolve international problems through negotiation.

3.3.2. Arms reduction.

3.3.3. As a last resort, use of force against countries that committed acts of aggression against others

3.3.4. Improve standard of living of all people through enhacing their quality of life and living conditions

3.3.5. Different opinions

3.3.5.1. Some thought that it was too lofty, idealistic

3.3.5.2. Some welcomed it

3.4. Was the League of Nations a success in the 1920s?

3.4.1. Political issues

3.4.1.1. 1920

3.4.1.1.1. Poland seized Vilna

3.4.1.1.2. Teritorial dispute between Finland and Sweden. Both countries laid claims to the Åland Islands.

3.4.1.1.3. Outbreak of war between Greece and Turkey.

3.4.1.2. 1921

3.4.1.2.1. Both Germany and Poland laid claims to the industrial area of Upper Silesia

3.4.1.3. 1923

3.4.1.3.1. Germany stopped making reparations to Allies. France and Belgium invaded and occupied the German industrial area of Ruhr.

3.4.1.4. 1925

3.4.1.4.1. Greece invaded Bulgaria following a dispute

3.4.2. Social issues

3.4.2.1. Helped millions of refugees to return home after the war

3.4.2.2. Health Commission of the League helped to reduce the spread of contagious diseases through international vaccination programmes and helped to reduce the number of deaths from.

3.4.2.3. Also work to reduce the smuggling of cheap labour/ opium/ dangerous chemicals across international borders.

3.4.2.4. Criticized for not doing enough to establish peace.

3.4.2.4.1. Some attributed failure to absence of USA.

3.4.3. Absence of USA

3.4.3.1. US Senate supported the idea of isolationism.

3.4.3.1.1. Did not want USA to become involved in another affair that would require its mean to fight.

3.4.3.2. Big blow to the organisation

3.4.3.3. Reputation and credibility would have benefited from having the strongest country in the would as a member

4. Did the USA play an active role in disarmament in the 1920s?

4.1. The Washington Naval Conference

4.1.1. 1921 - 1922

4.1.2. Aim was to get major powers to disarm.

4.1.3. Rivalry had cause an expensive naval arms race that could not be sustained.

4.1.4. USA invited Britain, France, Italy, Japan.

4.1.5. Agreed to Five Power Limitation Treaty

4.1.5.1. USA

4.1.5.1.1. 5

4.1.5.2. Britain

4.1.5.2.1. 5

4.1.5.3. Japan

4.1.5.3.1. 3

4.1.5.4. France

4.1.5.4.1. 1.67

4.1.5.5. Italy

4.1.5.5.1. 1.67

4.2. Locarno Pact 1925

4.2.1. Germany and former Allied Powers (Germany initiation)

4.2.2. Germany agreed to respect its new Western boundaries

4.2.3. No guarantee offered for Eastern borders as it hoped to secure a peaceful change of its border with Poland and reincorprate former territories

4.2.4. Germany agreed not to remilitarise Rhineland.

4.2.5. Resulted in improved relations between Germnay and former enemies, paved way for membership in League of Nations.

4.3. Kellogg-Briand Pact

4.3.1. Jointly initiated by the French Briand and American Kellogg.

4.3.2. August 1928

4.3.3. 15 nations then, 60 as time went by.

4.3.4. Agreement stated tgat they would not start wars to achieve their political/ economic ambitions.

4.3.5. Failed in not stating how countires could take action should any signatory fail the terms.

4.3.6. Failed in allowing wars in self-defence

4.3.7. Practice fof conducting undeclared wars. (countries could say that they were not officially at war )

5. How effective was the aid given to Germany?

5.1. Reparations were a burden to economy

5.2. Payments diverted money away from rebuilding conutry

5.3. Announced that it could not pay reparations anymore

5.3.1. French and Belgian troops occupied Germany's industrial heartland, Ruhr, and took coal, iron, etc as payment

5.3.2. Locals refused to cooperate, stopped working

5.3.2.1. Failed to dislodge soldiers still.

5.4. Weimar government tried to pay off debts by printing more money.

5.4.1. Irresponsible act by profession of economists.

5.4.2. Results in hyperinflation

5.4.3. Sharp and continuous rise in price

5.4.4. Lowers value of German currency

5.5. Dawes Plan

5.5.1. 1924

5.5.2. USA loaned Germany 800 million gold marks which was used to end hyperinflation/ pay reparations

5.5.3. Reduce total reparations

5.5.4. Germany given more flexible time schedule

5.5.5. France withdrew troops from Ruhr once Germany resumed payment.

5.6. Young Plan

5.6.1. 1929

5.6.2. Reduced amount of reparations by 2/3

5.6.3. Total payable: USD$ 2.6 billion

5.6.4. Repayment period extended to 59 years