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Agile World Door Mind Map: Agile World

1. Personal Software Process (PSP)

1.1. IT only

1.2. by Watts Humphrey; late 1994


1.4. derived

1.4.1. Team Software Process (TSP) IT only by Watts Humphrey; 1996

2. Test Driven Development (TDD)

2.1. IT only


2.3. derived

2.3.1. Acceptance Test Driven Development (ATDD) IT only Adds ‘A’ before TDD which stands for acceptance. In ATDD the acceptance criteria are defined in early in application development process and then those criteria can be used to guide the subsequent development work. ATDD is a collaborative exercise that involves product owners, business analysts, testers, and developers. ATDD helps to ensure that all project members understand precisely what needs to be done and implemented. a.k.a. Specification By Example (SBE) Example-Driven Development (EDD) Behavior Driven Development (BDD) Story Test-Driven Development (SDD) Functional Test Driven Development (FTDD) Executable acceptance test-driven development (EATDD)

2.3.2. Developer Test Driven Development (DTDD) IT only

2.4. derived

2.4.1. Context-Driven-Testing IT only

3. Domain Driven Design (DDD)

3.1. IT only

3.2. by Eric Evans


4. Joint Application Development (JAD)

4.1. IT only

4.2. by Chuck Morris, Tony Crawford; late 1970s

4.3. derived

4.3.1. Rapid Application Development (RAD) IT only

5. Adaptive Project Framework

5.1. by Robert K. Wysocki Ph.D.

6. Continous Integration (CI)

6.1. IT only

6.2. by Grady Booch; 1991


6.4. derived

6.4.1. Continuous Deployment (CD) IT only

7. eXtreme Programming (XP)

7.1. IT only

7.2. by Kent Beck, Erich Gamma; 1999



7.5. derived

7.5.1. eXtreme Manufacturing (XM) by Joe Justice; 2012

7.6. derived

7.6.1. Mob programming IT only by Hunter Industries; 2014

8. Agile Data (AD)

8.1. IT only

8.2. by Scott Ambler


9. Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe)

9.1. IT only

9.2. by Dean Leffingwell; 2012 v1.0


10. Feature Driven Developmement (FDD)

10.1. IT only

10.2. by Peter Coad, Jeff DeLuca; 1997


11. Scrum

11.1. by Ken Schwaber, Sutherland, Beedle; 2001



11.4. derived

11.4.1. Scrum-of-Scrums

11.5. derived

11.5.1. ScrumBan

11.6. derived

11.6.1. Large-Scale Scrum (LeSS) by Craig Larman, Bas Vodde derived LeSS Huge

11.7. derived

11.7.1. Agility Path by Ken Schwaber

11.8. derived

11.8.1. Scrum@Scale (ScrumPLoP) by Jeff Sutherland, Alex Brown

11.9. derived

11.9.1. Scrum Nexus™ Framework by Ken Schwaber; 2014/15

11.10. derived

11.10.1. eXtreme Manufacturing (XM) by Joe Justice; 2012

11.11. derived

11.11.1. XSCALE by Peter Merel; 2014

11.12. derived

11.12.1. Spotify Tribal model

11.13. derived

11.13.1. Type A, B, and C Sprints

12. Kanban

12.1. by David J.Anderson; 2010

12.2. derived

12.2.1. ScrumBan by Corey Ladas; 2009

12.3. derived

12.3.1. eXtreme Manufacturing (XM) by Joe Justice; 2012

13. Lean Software Development

13.1. IT only

13.2. by Mary Poppendieck, Tom Poppendieck; 2003

14. Sappient|Approach

15. Unified Process

15.1. IT only

15.2. by Jacobson, Kruchten, Royce, Kroll

15.3. derived

15.3.1. Rational Unified Process (RUP) IT only by Philippe Kruchten (Director of Process Development) derived Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) derived Open Unified Process (OpenUP) Essential Unified Process (EssUP) Agile Modelling (AM) Agile Unified Process (AUP) status: EoL Enterprise Unified Process (EUP)

16. Continuous Delivery (CD)

16.1. IT only

16.2. Continuous Delivery doesn't mean every change is deployed to production ASAP. It means every change is proven to be deployable at any time


17. Crystal Methodologies

17.1. IT only

17.2. by Allistar Cockburn; 1998

17.3. Comprised of a family of agile methodologies such as Crystal Clear, Crystal Yellow, Crystal Orange and others.

17.4. Crystal Clear

17.4.1. 2004

17.5. Crystal Yellow

17.6. Crystal Orange

17.6.1. 1998

17.7. Crystal Orange Web

17.7.1. 2001

17.8. Crystal Red

17.9. Crystal Maroon

17.10. Crystal Diamond

17.11. Crystal Sapphire

18. Adaptive Software Development (ASD)

18.1. IT only

18.2. by Jim Highsmith, Sam Bayer; 2000


19. DevOps

19.1. IT only

19.2. derived

19.2.1. Rugged DevOps

20. This freeware, non-commercial mind map was carefully hand crafted with passion and love for learning and constant improvement ... (please share, like and give feedback - your feedback and comments are my main motivation for further elaboration. THX!)

20.1. Questions / issues / errors? What do you think about my work? Your comments are highly appreciated. Please don't hesitate to contact me for :-) Mirosław Dąbrowski, Poland/Warsaw.






20.1.6. miroslaw_dabrowski

21. Legend

21.1. Icon

21.1.1. means this approach is dedicated to large scale a.k.a. Scaling Agility

21.2. Icon

21.2.1. means this approach is dedicated to IT only

22. What is Agile?

22.1. Agile Manifesto


22.1.2. 17 It industry veterans met at Snowbird Resort on February 11-13 2001 and created Agile Manifesto Introduced 4 Values and 12 Principles defining Agile for Software Development

22.1.3. disciplines that gave rise to the Agile Manifesto Extreme Programming, SCRUM, Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM®), Adaptive Software Development, Crystal, Feature-Driven Development, Pragmatic Programming.

22.2. Agile Alliance


22.3. Agile currently is buzzword, a marketing term

22.3.1. Agile is like any other newly introduced popular concept. “… Everybody is talking about it. Very few are doing it and those who are, are doing it badly” (James O. Coplien)

22.3.2. Agile as a word by it's own simply means - nothing more than merketing term. there are so many Agile methodologies, Agile standards, Agile techniques, Agile tools, Agile good / best agile practices, Agile frameworks etc., that 'Agile' word itself is to general

22.3.3. Agile is a generic description of a “Style of Working” and Philosophy. Not only style of working on project but rather culture in ENTIRE organization including also it's management level, clients and partners ‘Agile Project Management’ is perhaps an oxymoron

22.4. The Agile Mindset, Values and Principles

22.4.1. 4 Agile Value 1. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools 2. Working software over comprehensive documentation 3. Customer collaboration over contract negotiation 4. Responding to change over following a plan

22.4.2. 12 Agile Principles 1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. 2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage. 3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. 4. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. 5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. 6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation. 7. Working software is the primary measure of progress. 8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. 9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility. 10. Simplicity - the art of maximizing the amount of work not done - is essential. 11. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams. 12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.

22.4.3. The unlimited number of Agile Practices The 'forest' of Agile Methods, Frameworks, Standards ... Being Agile vs Doing Agile

22.5. Agile is a umbrella term enclosing different methodologies, tools, techniques, practices and frameworks

22.5.1. In Agile community umbrella symbolizes different approaches in implementing Agile Manifesto but yet all from them are "Agilelish"

22.5.2. SCRUM, Lean, KANBAN, XP are not ‘Agile Project Management’ practices but rather team level practices No Project Manager role No project definition and etablished project / programme governance ...

22.6. Plan-Driven Projects vs. Change-driven Project Projects

22.6.1. Traditional (waterfall or sequential) Project Management metaphor Railway metaphor Moving forward, based on delivering predicted upfront requirements in accepted tolerances with limited tolerance to change, destination (final product specification) is known upfront and it will hardly change to any other destination Changing course of train based on requirements a.k.a. Plan-driven build around paradigm of process defined process control model All work is understood before execution Given a well-defined set of inputs, the same outputs are generated every time Follow the pre-determined steps to get known results

22.6.2. Agile (iterative + incremental + adaptive) Project Management metaphor Sailing metaphor Embracing change of requirements, finding TRUE value for stakeholders by experimenting, testing, changing status quo. Adapting / changing course of sailing based on business TRUE business needs and priorities, which could be different than requirements a.k.a. Change-driven build around paradigm of change / adaptation empirical (adaptive) process control model Frequent inspection and adaptation occurs as work proceeds Processes are accepted as imperfectly defined Outputs are often unpredictable and unrepeatable

22.7. Agile is best for complex projects

22.7.1. Simple (straightforward) Everything is known and predicatable Characteristics Repeating patterns and consistent events Clear cause‐and‐effect Well establish knowns Fact based management Leader’s/Manager’s job Use best practices Extensive communication not necessary Establish patterns and optimize to them Command and control

22.7.2. Complicated More is known than unknown Characteristics More predictability than unpredictability Fact‐based management Experts work out wrinkle Leader’s/Manager’s job Utilize experts to gain insights Use metrics to gain control Sense, analyze, respond Command and control

22.7.3. Complex More is unknown than known Characteristics More predictability than unpredictability Fact‐based management Experts work out wrinkle Leader’s/Manager’s job Create bounded environments for action Increase levels of interaction and communication Servant leadership Generate ideas Probe, sense, respond

22.7.4. Chaotic (unpredictable) Very little is known Characteristics High Turbulence No clear cause‐and‐effect Unknowables Many decisions and no time Leader’s/Manager’s job Immediate action to re‐establish order Prioritize and select actionable work Look for what works rather than perfection Act, sense, respond

22.7.5. See also Cynefin framework (by Dan Snowden) different view on Cynefin Framework

22.7.6. Relating Complexity and Management Style

22.8. Agile is about delivering "best possible value" not maximum possible value

22.8.1. VALUE is NOT the same as BENEFIT Benefits Benefit is about outputs Benefit is a objective Benefit is an advantage to stakeholders (internal or external to the organization) Benefit can be financial and non financial Benefit can be ... Benefit MUST be measurable and observable Benefits are identifiable and quantifiable Benefits SHOULD have baselines Benefits SHOULD have priorities Benefits types: in general benefit = delivered requirements on time, on budget, within scope etc. Value Value is about outcomes Value is subjective Value can be measurable (if required but not natural to use such techniques in any Agile approach) Value can be ... Values SHOULD have priorities in general value = designed fit for purpose, as small as possible solution

22.9. Agile is about focusing on business value / outcome, not strictly project plan / output

22.9.1. Focusing on value delivery not on fixed product definition or strict adherence to plan That's why most Agile approaches define Project Vision

22.10. Agile respects the urgency and importance of priorities conveyed by the customer / user, most prominently by incremental delivery and flexible sequencing

22.11. Agile respects the common sense that all requirements can not be known at the outset, particularly when the outcomes are intangible and subject to an evolving understanding.

22.11.1. “People don’t know what they want until you show it to them” (Steve Jobs, 1955 - 2011)

22.12. Agile is about empowering people, treating them as intellectual individuals

22.12.1. “You have to learn to manage in situations where you don’t have command authority, where you are neither controlled nor controlling. That is the fundamental change.” (Peter F. Drucker)

22.13. Agile is about working closely and constantly (active two side collaboration) with customer throughout (including more than just feedback loops)

22.13.1. “Never write when you can talk. Never talk when you can nod. And never put anything in an email“ (Eliot Spitzer)

22.14. Agile is about change, constant change which leads to better value

22.14.1. “If a process is too unpredictable or too complicated for the planned, (predictive) approach, then the empirical approach (measure and adapt) is the method of choice“ (Ken Schwaber)

22.14.2. "Move Fast and Break Things" Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook

22.14.3. "Change is the only constant." Heraclitus, Greek philosopher

22.15. Agile thinking / approach often requires mind change and cultural shift

22.15.1. Not every organization is ready for that change!

22.15.2. "It is quite difficult for a highly structured and seniority-based organization to mobilize itself for change, especially under noncrisis conditions. this effort collapses somewhere in the hierarchy" (K. Imai, I. Nonaka, H. Takeuchi)

22.15.3. "Scrum exposes every cultural dysfunction that impedes developing software [...] It is not an approach or process that can be modified to fit the existing organizational culture; the culture must change to enable Scrum" (K. Schwaber, J. Sutherland)

22.15.4. “We cannot become what we need by remaining what we are.” (John C. Maxwell)

22.16. Why Agile Works

22.16.1. 1. The customer's representative is in the driver's seat

22.16.2. 2. Quick reaction to the changing market and needs

22.16.3. 3. More visibility

22.16.4. 4. Ideal environment for development

22.16.5. 5. Self-manged teams

22.16.6. 6. Removes confusion and distraction

22.16.7. 7. No fortune tellers; Plan as you go

22.16.8. 8. Issues are less disruptive

22.16.9. 9. Continuous improvement

22.17. The 10 Golden Rules for Successful Agile Projects (by Keith Richards)


22.17.2. No. 1: Define the project objective in less than 10 words You must start with the end in mind You need to know exactly where you are going The business case is your best friend This will take you a long time to do It will help you to kill a project going nowhere The scope of the project will map on to this. TIP Can you write the project objective on a Post-it note with a flip chart marker?

22.17.3. No. 2: Build a team with those who say ‘can’ A lot of being agile is about options If you get the right people you are half way there Choose the right person above the right skill set “If you think you can’t, you’re right” - Carol Bartz You need collaboration and team spirit. TIP Ask a team member this question: Can I ask a favour?

22.17.4. No. 3: Go slow early to go fast later This is counter intuitive How much ‘DUF’ is enough? Answer EDUF! Build from firm foundations You must avoid analysis paralysis Try and spot early solutioneering. TIP Ask yourself: Is it safe to move on?

22.17.5. No. 4: Look backwards to go forwards Learn your lessons - both good and bad Evolve the process - it has to evolve If it doesn’t work - do something else! Try this! - Review, Plan, Do Share your experiences with other teams. TIP Ask yourself how many of your projects have ended with a project review.

22.17.6. No. 5: Change is great! You need to anticipate change and embrace it This allows a more accurate solution to result Do not confuse the breadth of the scope with the depth Evolve and converge on the solution with the right kind of change. TIP How do you feel when a customer says “I’ve changed my mind”?

22.17.7. No. 6: To be understood, seek first to understand. Command and control may not work with Agile Facilitation is a core competency Big ears, big eyes, small mouth You have to play with the cards you are dealt This will give you ownership. TIP Try the 10 second silence when getting a progress update - nothing else can compete with it!

22.17.8. No. 7: Collect Actuals – this is the oxygen for your project ‘You cannot control what you cannot measure’ - Tom de Marco Meten is weten - to measure is to know Start now - build a metrics database Keep it simple to start with Calibrate your estimates. TIP Do you know (to the nearest day) how much time was spent on testing during your last project?

22.17.9. No. 8: Use fat communication channels Shift the communication traffic to bigger pipes The written word is a silent killer Go visual Use workshops “Never write when you can talk. Never talk when you can nod. And never put anything in an email“ (Eliot Spitzer) TIP Try turning a document over and take a look at what is on the back

22.17.10. No. 9: Work hard at controlling what you can’t control Continuously manage external risks You may get your team right but what about 3rd parties? Are they playing by the same rules as you? Get the team involved Be ‘a bit of a worrier’. TIP Actively manage your risk log - it is not a storage area

22.17.11. No. 10: One more day? NO! We’ll catch up? NO! Time focus is your greatest weapon Force the issue – understand your condition Timeboxes not milestones If you are going to fail – fail early Prioritise with MoSCoW – it should be natural. TIP Set a deadline and hit it - never extend it, not even once!

23. PRINCE2 Agile

23.1. by Keith Richards; 2015


24. Management 3.0


25. Beyond Budgeting


26. Product Development Flow

27. The Vanguard Method

27.1. by John Seddon



28. Radical Management

28.1. by Steve Denning


29. Theory of Constraints

29.1. by Eliyahu M. Goldratt; 1997


30. Enterprise Transition Framework (ETF)

30.1. by agile42


31. The Mikado Method


32. Holocracy

32.1. by Brian Robertson; 2007



33. Evo methodology

33.1. by Tom Gilb; 1990s

34. Managed Agile Development Framework

34.1. by Charles G. Cobb; 2013

34.2. hybrid project-level framework

35. Agile Assessment Tools (a.k.a. Maturity Models)

35.1. DSDM/AgilePM Project Health Check Questionnairr (PHCQ)

35.1.1. by Miroslaw Dabrowski

35.2. Evidence Based Management (EBM)

35.2.1. by Ken Schwaber


35.3. Comparative Agility

35.3.1. by Cohn


35.4. Agile and Lean Forrester’s assessment framework

35.4.1. by Forrester


35.5. Agile Realized Benefits & Improvements (AgileRBI)

35.5.1. by DavisBase Consulting

35.6. Scaled Agile Framework assessments

35.6.1. by Dean Leffingwell


35.7. Agile Adoption Index

35.7.1. by Ahmed Sidky


35.8. Sidky Agile Measurement Index (SAMI)

35.8.1. by Ahmed Sidky

35.9. Agile Journey Index (AJI)

35.9.1. by AgileBill Krebs

35.10. XP Evaluation Framework (XP:EF)

35.10.1. by AgileBill Krebs, Laurie Williams

35.11. Agile Coach Health Assessment

35.11.1. by Agile Transformation Inc.


35.12. TeamHealth Retrospective Assessment

35.12.1. by Agile Transformation Inc.


36. Recipes for Agile Governance in the Enterprise (RAGE)


37. Sociocracy 3.0


38. Liquid Organization Model



39. The Open Organization


40. The Agile Software Development Lifecycle

40.1. by BearingPoint / infonova, 2016

41. Agile Project Management

41.1. by Trans-Atlantic Consulting Group BV; Polychor, 2014