The Age of Anxiety

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1. The Treaty of Versailles

1.1. Wilson's Fourteen Points

1.1.1. Called for open diplomacy, a reduction in armaments, and freedom of commerce and trade

1.1.2. The cornerstone of this plan was an international body called the League of Nations

1.1.3. Demanded that the peace be based on the notion of national self-determination

1.2. The German Question

1.2.1. France wanted Germany to pay massive reparations for its aggression and also to ensure lasting national security.

1.2.2. Great Britain agreed with France that Germany should pay but was not nearly as aggressive.

1.2.3. The United States was opposed to trying to punish Germany so harshly and wanted to focus on international peace.

1.3. Terms of the Treaty

1.3.1. Redrew the map of Europe, with new nations such as Poland, Czechoslovakia, Finland, the Baltic states, and Yugoslavia

1.3.2. Ottoman Empire split apart

1.3.3. Reparations for losers

1.3.4. Colonies of the losers split among the winners

1.3.5. War guilt clause placed all the blame on Germany

1.4. American Response

1.4.1. Republican senators led by Henry Cabot Lodge opposed the treaty because they believed it took away from Congressional power to declare war

1.4.2. Lodge wanted changes, but Wilson refused to compromise

1.4.3. The United States never ratified the treaty

1.5. Effectiveness

1.5.1. Much of the treaty was good in theory but flawed in practice

1.5.2. Many terms of the treaty can be linked to the eventual causes of World War II

2. Geographic Changes

2.1. Austria-Hungary

2.1.1. No longer existed

2.1.2. Separated into Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Romania

2.2. Ottoman Turks

2.2.1. Empire fell apart after the war

2.2.2. France and Great Britain created artificial boundaries based ethnic groups

2.3. Poland

2.3.1. Became an independent nation after parts once owned by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia

2.4. Yugoslavia

2.4.1. Serbian monarchy greatly expanded and took control of Balkan states and turned into Yugoslavia

2.5. Northeast Europe carved from Europe

2.5.1. Germany demanded that Russia give up its western territories

2.5.2. When demands were not met, Germany marched into Russia

2.5.3. Russia signed the Treaty of Bret-Litovsk, which took away one-third of Russia's population

3. Economic Changes

3.1. Immediately after the War

3.1.1. Veterans received no benefits or pensions and had to resort to begging on the streets

3.1.2. One-third of the German budget was spent on war-related pensions and benefits

3.2. Economic Winners

3.2.1. Great Britain and France tried to reestablish foreign trade and go back to the gold standard

3.3. Economic Losers

3.3.1. Austria and German faced exorbitant amounts of reparations

3.3.2. Unemployment and inflation raised drastically

3.4. The Great Depression

3.4.1. Caused widespread unemployment

3.4.2. Beginning market by stock market crash in the United States that set off a chain reaction that severely wounded the international economy

3.4.3. Many social programs aimed to aid those affected

3.4.4. Gave authoritarian fascist parties a way to gain power throughout Europe

3.4.5. John Maynard Keynes

3.4.5.1. Believed that the treaty of Versailles was threatening the economy of Europe

3.5. Mass Unemployment

3.5.1. The lack of large-scale government spending led to the rise of mass unemployment

3.5.2. Financial crisis led to cuts in production, which left workers with no jobs and little money

3.5.3. The only way to combat the failing economy was for governments to pump new money into the economy to increase demand

4. Political Instability

4.1. Irish Independence

4.1.1. Irish nationalists revolted in the great Easter Rebellion in April 1916

4.1.2. After a week of fighting the nationalists' revolt was crushed and their leader was executed

4.1.3. In 1922, after a bitter guerrilla war, southern Catholic Ireland was granted full independence

4.2. Kellogg-Briand Pact

4.2.1. When Germany joined the League of Nations, 15 nations agreed to sign this pact

4.2.2. Signing states agreed to renounce war and settle disputes peacefully

4.2.3. The pact made no provisions for action in case war occurred but gave a cautious optimism and hope

5. Cultural Changes

5.1. Art and Architecture

5.1.1. Artists began to reject old forms and old values

5.1.2. Modernism

5.1.2.1. Involved radical experimentation that challenged many traditional forms of art

5.1.2.2. Constant search for new kinds of expression

5.1.2.3. One modernist movement was impressionism, where artists tried to portray their sensory impressions in their work

5.1.3. Bauhaus School

5.1.3.1. German interdisciplinary school that brought together many of the leading modern architects, designers, and innovators of theater

5.1.3.2. Worked as a team to combine their art studies to focus on functionalism and design for every day life

5.1.4. Functionalism

5.1.4.1. Argued to be the new principle order in which buildings and living spaces should follow

5.1.4.2. Principle that buildings should serve the purpose they were made for as best as possible

5.1.5. Surrealism

5.1.5.1. Deeply influenced by Freudian psychology and conveyed the unconscious in their art

5.1.5.2. Did this by making words of dreams and uncomfortable symbols

5.1.6. Abstract

5.1.6.1. Highly analytical art form that concentrated on complex geometry and sharply overlapped panes

5.1.6.2. Developed a type of nonrepresentational type of art

5.2. Twentieth-Century Literature

5.2.1. Literature began to focus on expressing new realities through confused viewpoints of individuals and the irrationality of the mind

5.2.2. Stream-of-Consciousness Technique

5.2.2.1. A literary technique that uses inferior monologue to explore the psyche of humans

6. Philosophy and Science

6.1. Philosophy

6.1.1. Existentialism

6.1.1.1. A philosophy that stresses meaningless of existence and the importance of individuals to search for morals in the uncertain world

6.1.1.2. Major thinkers included Nietzsche and Kierkegaard

6.1.2. Serious thinkers and writers attacked the ideas of optimism brought from the Enlightenment

6.1.3. Caused by growing dissatisfaction and helplessness after the war

6.2. Science

6.2.1. Ever since the Scientific Revolution, science held a large influence over the beliefs of the people

6.2.2. With the development of new physics, the comfort about natural laws was greatly shaken

6.2.3. Theory of Relativity

6.2.3.1. Developed by German Albert Einstein

6.2.3.2. Stated that both time and space are relative to the POV of the observer with the only constant being the speed of light

6.2.4. Freudian Psychology

6.2.4.1. Freud believed three different parts of the unconscious ruled conscious behavior--the primitive id, the controlling superego, and the rational ego