KEGG 494 Pathway Maps

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1. 7.Drug Development 75 pathways

1.1. Chronology: Antiinfectives

1.2. Chronology: Antineoplastics

1.3. Chronology: Nervous system agents

1.4. Chronology: Other drugs

1.5. Target-based classification: G protein-coupled receptors

1.6. Target-based classification: Nuclear receptors

1.7. Target-based classification: Ion channels

1.8. Target-based classification: Transporters

1.9. Target-based classification: Enzymes

1.10. Structure-based classification

1.11. Skeleton-based classification

2. 1.Metabolism 178 pathways

2.1. Global and overview maps

2.1.1. 01100 Metabolic pathways

2.1.2. 01110 Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites

2.1.3. 01120 Microbial metabolism in diverse environments

2.1.4. 01130 Biosynthesis of antibiotics

2.1.5. 01200 Carbon metabolism

2.1.6. 01210 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism

2.1.7. 01212 Fatty acid metabolism

2.1.8. 01230 Biosynthesis of amino acids

2.1.9. 01220 Degradation of aromatic compounds

2.2. Carbohydrate metabolism

2.2.1. 00010 Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis

2.2.2. 00020 Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)

2.2.3. 00030 Pentose phosphate pathway

2.2.4. 00040 Pentose and glucuronate interconversions

2.2.5. 00051 Fructose and mannose metabolism

2.2.6. 00052 Galactose metabolism

2.2.7. 00053 Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism

2.2.8. 00500 Starch and sucrose metabolism

2.2.9. 00520 Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism

2.2.10. 00620 Pyruvate metabolism

2.2.11. 00630 Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism

2.2.12. 00640 Propanoate metabolism

2.2.13. 00650 Butanoate metabolism

2.2.14. 00660 C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism

2.2.15. 00562 Inositol phosphate metabolism

2.3. Energy metabolism

2.3.1. 00190 Oxidative phosphorylation

2.3.2. 00195 Photosynthesis

2.3.3. 00196 Photosynthesis - antenna proteins

2.3.4. 00710 Carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms

2.3.5. 00720 Carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes

2.3.6. 00680 Methane metabolism

2.3.7. 00910 Nitrogen metabolism

2.3.8. 00920 Sulfur metabolism

2.4. Lipid metabolism

2.4.1. 00061 Fatty acid biosynthesis

2.4.2. 00062 Fatty acid elongation

2.4.3. 00071 Fatty acid degradation

2.4.4. 00072 Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies

2.4.5. 00073 Cutin, suberine and wax biosynthesis

2.4.6. 00100 Steroid biosynthesis

2.4.7. 00120 Primary bile acid biosynthesis

2.4.8. 00121 Secondary bile acid biosynthesis

2.4.9. 00140 Steroid hormone biosynthesis

2.4.10. 00561 Glycerolipid metabolism

2.4.11. 00564 Glycerophospholipid metabolism

2.4.12. 00565 Ether lipid metabolism

2.4.13. 00600 Sphingolipid metabolism

2.4.14. 00590 Arachidonic acid metabolism

2.4.15. 00591 Linoleic acid metabolism

2.4.16. 00592 alpha-Linolenic acid metabolism

2.4.17. 01040 Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids

2.5. Nucleotide metabolism

2.5.1. 00230 Purine metabolism

2.5.2. 00240 Pyrimidine metabolism

2.6. Amino acid metabolism

2.6.1. 00250 Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism

2.6.2. 00260 Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism

2.6.3. 00270 Cysteine and methionine metabolism

2.6.4. 00280 Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation

2.6.5. 00290 Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis

2.6.6. 00300 Lysine biosynthesis

2.6.7. 00310 Lysine degradation

2.6.8. 00220 Arginine biosynthesis

2.6.9. 00330 Arginine and proline metabolism

2.6.10. 00340 Histidine metabolism

2.6.11. 00350 Tyrosine metabolism

2.6.12. 00360 Phenylalanine metabolism

2.6.13. 00380 Tryptophan metabolism

2.6.14. 00400 Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis

2.7. Metabolism of other amino acids

2.7.1. 00410 beta-Alanine metabolism

2.7.2. 00430 Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism

2.7.3. 00440 Phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism

2.7.4. 00450 Selenocompound metabolism

2.7.5. 00460 Cyanoamino acid metabolism

2.7.6. 00471 D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism

2.7.7. 00472 D-Arginine and D-ornithine metabolism

2.7.8. 00473 D-Alanine metabolism

2.7.9. 00480 Glutathione metabolism

2.8. Glycan biosynthesis and metabolism

2.8.1. 00510 N-Glycan biosynthesis

2.8.2. 00513 Various types of N-glycan biosynthesis

2.8.3. 00512 Mucin type O-Glycan biosynthesis

2.8.4. 00514 Other types of O-glycan biosynthesis

2.8.5. 00532 Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - chondroitin sulfate / dermatan sulfate

2.8.6. 00534 Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - heparan sulfate / heparin

2.8.7. 00533 Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - keratan sulfate

2.8.8. 00531 Glycosaminoglycan degradation

2.8.9. 00563 Glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-anchor biosynthesis

2.8.10. 00601 Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - lacto and neolacto series

2.8.11. 00603 Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - globo series

2.8.12. 00604 Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - ganglio series

2.8.13. 00540 Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis

2.8.14. 00550 Peptidoglycan biosynthesis

2.8.15. 00511 Other glycan degradation

2.9. Metabolism of cofactors and vitamins

2.9.1. 00730 Thiamine metabolism

2.9.2. 00740 Riboflavin metabolism

2.9.3. 00750 Vitamin B6 metabolism

2.9.4. 00760 Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism

2.9.5. 00770 Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis

2.9.6. 00780 Biotin metabolism

2.9.7. 00785 Lipoic acid metabolism

2.9.8. 00790 Folate biosynthesis

2.9.9. 00670 One carbon pool by folate

2.9.10. 00830 Retinol metabolism

2.9.11. 00860 Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism

2.9.12. 00130 Ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis

2.10. Metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides

2.10.1. 00900 Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis

2.10.2. 00902 Monoterpenoid biosynthesis

2.10.3. 00909 Sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis

2.10.4. 00904 Diterpenoid biosynthesis

2.10.5. 00906 Carotenoid biosynthesis

2.10.6. 00905 Brassinosteroid biosynthesis

2.10.7. 00981 Insect hormone biosynthesis

2.10.8. 00908 Zeatin biosynthesis

2.10.9. 00903 Limonene and pinene degradation

2.10.10. 00281 Geraniol degradation

2.10.11. 01052 Type I polyketide structures

2.10.12. 00522 Biosynthesis of 12-, 14- and 16-membered macrolides

2.10.13. 01051 Biosynthesis of ansamycins

2.10.14. 01056 Biosynthesis of type II polyketide backbone

2.10.15. 01057 Biosynthesis of type II polyketide products

2.10.16. 00253 Tetracycline biosynthesis

2.10.17. 00523 Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis

2.10.18. 01054 Nonribosomal peptide structures

2.10.19. 01053 Biosynthesis of siderophore group nonribosomal peptides

2.10.20. 01055 Biosynthesis of vancomycin group antibiotics

2.11. Biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites

2.11.1. 00940 Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis

2.11.2. 00945 Stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis

2.11.3. 00941 Flavonoid biosynthesis

2.11.4. 00944 Flavone and flavonol biosynthesis

2.11.5. 00942 Anthocyanin biosynthesis

2.11.6. 00943 Isoflavonoid biosynthesis

2.11.7. 00901 Indole alkaloid biosynthesis

2.11.8. 00403 Indole diterpene alkaloid biosynthesis

2.11.9. 00950 Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis

2.11.10. 00960 Tropane, piperidine and pyridine alkaloid biosynthesis

2.11.11. 01058 Acridone alkaloid biosynthesis

2.11.12. 00232 Caffeine metabolism

2.11.13. 00965 Betalain biosynthesis

2.11.14. 00966 Glucosinolate biosynthesis

2.11.15. 00402 Benzoxazinoid biosynthesis

2.11.16. 00311 Penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthesis

2.11.17. 00332 Carbapenem biosynthesis

2.11.18. 00261 Monobactam biosynthesis

2.11.19. 00331 Clavulanic acid biosynthesis

2.11.20. 00521 Streptomycin biosynthesis

2.11.21. 00524 Neomycin, kanamycin and gentamicin biosynthesis

2.11.22. 00525 Acarbose and validamycin biosynthesis

2.11.23. 00231 Puromycin biosynthesis

2.11.24. 00401 Novobiocin biosynthesis

2.11.25. 00404 Staurosporine biosynthesis

2.11.26. 00254 Aflatoxin biosynthesis

2.12. Xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism

2.12.1. 00362 Benzoate degradation

2.12.2. 00627 Aminobenzoate degradation

2.12.3. 00364 Fluorobenzoate degradation

2.12.4. 00625 Chloroalkane and chloroalkene degradation

2.12.5. 00361 Chlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzene degradation

2.12.6. 00623 Toluene degradation

2.12.7. 00622 Xylene degradation

2.12.8. 00633 Nitrotoluene degradation

2.12.9. 00642 Ethylbenzene degradation

2.12.10. 00643 Styrene degradation

2.12.11. 00791 Atrazine degradation

2.12.12. 00930 Caprolactam degradation

2.12.13. 00351 DDT degradation

2.12.14. 00363 Bisphenol degradation

2.12.15. 00621 Dioxin degradation

2.12.16. 00626 Naphthalene degradation

2.12.17. 00624 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation

2.12.18. 00365 Furfural degradation

2.12.19. 00984 Steroid degradation

2.12.20. 00980 Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450

2.12.21. 00982 Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450

2.12.22. 00983 Drug metabolism - other enzymes

2.13. Chemical structure transformation maps

2.13.1. 01010 Overview of biosynthetic pathways

2.13.2. 01060 Biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites

2.13.3. 01061 Biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids

2.13.4. 01062 Biosynthesis of terpenoids and steroids

2.13.5. 01063 Biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from shikimate pathway

2.13.6. 01064 Biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from ornithine, lysine and nicotinic acid

2.13.7. 01065 Biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from histidine and purine

2.13.8. 01066 Biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from terpenoid and polyketide

2.13.9. 01070 Biosynthesis of plant hormones

3. 2.Genetic Information Processing 22 pathways

3.1. Transcription

3.2. Translation

3.3. Folding, sorting and degradation

3.4. Replication and repair

4. 4.Cellular Processes 24 pathways

4.1. Transport and catabolism

4.1.1. 04144 Endocytosis

4.1.2. 04145 Phagosome

4.1.3. 04142 Lysosome

4.1.4. 04146 Peroxisome

4.1.5. 04140 Regulation of autophagy

4.1.6. 04139 Regulation of mitophagy - yeast

4.2. Cell motility

4.2.1. 02030 Bacterial chemotaxis

4.2.2. 02040 Flagellar assembly

4.2.3. 04810 Regulation of actin cytoskeleton

4.3. Cell growth and death

4.3.1. 04110 Cell cycle

4.3.2. 04111 Cell cycle - yeast

4.3.3. 04112 Cell cycle - Caulobacter

4.3.4. 04113 Meiosis - yeast

4.3.5. 04114 Oocyte meiosis

4.3.6. 04210 Apoptosis

4.3.7. 04214 Apoptosis - fly

4.3.8. 04215 Apoptosis - multiple species

4.3.9. 04115 p53 signaling pathway

4.4. Cellular community

4.4.1. 02024 Quorum sensing

4.4.2. 04510 Focal adhesion

4.4.3. 04520 Adherens junction

4.4.4. 04530 Tight junction

4.4.5. 04540 Gap junction

4.4.6. 04550 Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells

5. 5.Organismal Systems 77 pathways

5.1. Immune system

5.1.1. 04640 Hematopoietic cell lineage

5.1.2. 04610 Complement and coagulation cascades

5.1.3. 04611 Platelet activation

5.1.4. 04620 Toll-like receptor signaling pathway

5.1.5. 04624 Toll and Imd signaling pathway

5.1.6. 04621 NOD-like receptor signaling pathway

5.1.7. 04622 RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway

5.1.8. 04623 Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway

5.1.9. 04650 Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity

5.1.10. 04612 Antigen processing and presentation

5.1.11. 04660 T cell receptor signaling pathway

5.1.12. 04662 B cell receptor signaling pathway

5.1.13. 04664 Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway

5.1.14. 04666 Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis

5.1.15. 04670 Leukocyte transendothelial migration

5.1.16. 04672 Intestinal immune network for IgA production

5.1.17. 04062 Chemokine signaling pathway

5.2. Endocrine system

5.2.1. 04911 Insulin secretion

5.2.2. 04910 Insulin signaling pathway

5.2.3. 04922 Glucagon signaling pathway

5.2.4. 04923 Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes

5.2.5. 04920 Adipocytokine signaling pathway

5.2.6. 03320 PPAR signaling pathway

5.2.7. 04912 GnRH signaling pathway

5.2.8. 04913 Ovarian steroidogenesis

5.2.9. 04915 Estrogen signaling pathway

5.2.10. 04914 Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation

5.2.11. 04917 Prolactin signaling pathway

5.2.12. 04921 Oxytocin signaling pathway

5.2.13. 04918 Thyroid hormone synthesis

5.2.14. 04919 Thyroid hormone signaling pathway

5.2.15. 04916 Melanogenesis

5.2.16. 04924 Renin secretion

5.2.17. 04614 Renin-angiotensin system

5.2.18. 04925 Aldosterone synthesis and secretion

5.3. Circulatory system

5.3.1. 04260 Cardiac muscle contraction

5.3.2. 04261 Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes

5.3.3. 04270 Vascular smooth muscle contraction

5.4. Digestive system

5.4.1. 04970 Salivary secretion

5.4.2. 04971 Gastric acid secretion

5.4.3. 04972 Pancreatic secretion

5.4.4. 04976 Bile secretion

5.4.5. 04973 Carbohydrate digestion and absorption

5.4.6. 04974 Protein digestion and absorption

5.4.7. 04975 Fat digestion and absorption

5.4.8. 04977 Vitamin digestion and absorption

5.4.9. 04978 Mineral absorption

5.5. Excretory system

5.5.1. 04962 Vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption

5.5.2. 04960 Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption

5.5.3. 04961 Endocrine and other factor-regulated calcium reabsorption

5.5.4. 04964 Proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation

5.5.5. 04966 Collecting duct acid secretion

5.6. Nervous system

5.6.1. 04724 Glutamatergic synapse

5.6.2. 04727 GABAergic synapse

5.6.3. 04725 Cholinergic synapse

5.6.4. 04728 Dopaminergic synapse

5.6.5. 04726 Serotonergic synapse

5.6.6. 04720 Long-term potentiation

5.6.7. 04730 Long-term depression

5.6.8. 04723 Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling

5.6.9. 04721 Synaptic vesicle cycle

5.6.10. 04722 Neurotrophin signaling pathway

5.7. Sensory system

5.7.1. 04744 Phototransduction

5.7.2. 04745 Phototransduction - fly

5.7.3. 04740 Olfactory transduction

5.7.4. 04742 Taste transduction

5.7.5. 04750 Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels

5.8. Development

5.8.1. 04320 Dorso-ventral axis formation

5.8.2. 04360 Axon guidance

5.8.3. 04380 Osteoclast differentiation

5.9. Aging

5.9.1. 04211 Longevity regulating pathway

5.9.2. 04212 Longevity regulating pathway - worm

5.9.3. 04213 Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species

5.10. Environmental adaptation

5.10.1. 04710 Circadian rhythm

5.10.2. 04713 Circadian entrainment

5.10.3. 04711 Circadian rhythm - fly

5.10.4. 04712 Circadian rhythm - plant

5.10.5. 04626 Plant-pathogen interaction

6. 3.Environmental Information Processing 38 pathways

6.1. Membrane transport

6.2. Signal transduction

6.3. Signaling molecules and interaction

7. 6.Human Diseases 80 pathways

7.1. 12 categories

7.1.1. 6.1 Cancers: Overview

7.1.1.1. 05200 Pathways in cancer

7.1.1.2. 05230 Central carbon metabolism in cancer

7.1.1.3. 05231 Choline metabolism in cancer

7.1.1.4. 05202 Transcriptional misregulation in cancer

7.1.1.5. 05206 MicroRNAs in cancer

7.1.1.6. 05205 Proteoglycans in cancer

7.1.1.7. 05204 Chemical carcinogenesis

7.1.2. 6.2 Cancers: Specific types

7.1.2.1. 05210 Colorectal cancer

7.1.2.2. 05212 Pancreatic cancer

7.1.2.3. 05214 Glioma

7.1.2.4. 05216 Thyroid cancer

7.1.2.5. 05221 Acute myeloid leukemia

7.1.2.6. 05220 Chronic myeloid leukemia

7.1.2.7. 05217 Basal cell carcinoma

7.1.2.8. 05218 Melanoma

7.1.2.9. 05211 Renal cell carcinoma

7.1.2.10. 05219 Bladder cancer

7.1.2.11. 05215 Prostate cancer

7.1.2.12. 05213 Endometrial cancer

7.1.2.13. 05222 Small cell lung cancer

7.1.2.14. 05223 Non-small cell lung cancer

7.1.3. 6.3 Immune diseases

7.1.3.1. 05310 Asthma

7.1.3.2. 05322 Systemic lupus erythematosus

7.1.3.3. 05323 Rheumatoid arthritis

7.1.3.4. 05320 Autoimmune thyroid disease

7.1.3.5. 05321 Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

7.1.3.6. 05330 Allograft rejection

7.1.3.7. 05332 Graft-versus-host disease

7.1.3.8. 05340 Primary immunodeficiency

7.1.4. 6.4 Neurodegenerative diseases

7.1.4.1. 05010 Alzheimer's disease

7.1.4.2. 05012 Parkinson's disease

7.1.4.3. 05014 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

7.1.4.4. 05016 Huntington's disease

7.1.4.5. 05020 Prion diseases

7.1.5. 6.5 Substance dependence

7.1.5.1. 05030 Cocaine addiction

7.1.5.2. 05031 Amphetamine addiction

7.1.5.3. 05032 Morphine addiction

7.1.5.4. 05033 Nicotine addiction

7.1.5.5. 05034 Alcoholism

7.1.6. 6.6 Cardiovascular diseases

7.1.6.1. 05410 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)

7.1.6.2. 05412 Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC)

7.1.6.3. 05414 Dilated cardiomyopathy

7.1.6.4. 05416 Viral myocarditis

7.1.7. 6.7 Endocrine and metabolic diseases

7.1.7.1. 04930 Type II diabetes mellitus

7.1.7.2. 04940 Type I diabetes mellitus

7.1.7.3. 04950 Maturity onset diabetes of the young

7.1.7.4. 04932 Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

7.1.7.5. 04931 Insulin resistance

7.1.7.6. 04933 AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications

7.1.8. 6.8 Infectious diseases: Bacterial

7.1.8.1. 05110 Vibrio cholerae infection

7.1.8.2. 05111 Vibrio cholerae pathogenic cycle

7.1.8.3. 05120 Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection

7.1.8.4. 05130 Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection

7.1.8.5. 05132 Salmonella infection

7.1.8.6. 05131 Shigellosis

7.1.8.7. 05133 Pertussis

7.1.8.8. 05134 Legionellosis

7.1.8.9. 05150 Staphylococcus aureus infection

7.1.8.10. 05152 Tuberculosis

7.1.8.11. 05100 Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells

7.1.9. 6.9 Infectious diseases: Viral

7.1.9.1. 05166 HTLV-I infection

7.1.9.2. 05162 Measles

7.1.9.3. 05164 Influenza A

7.1.9.4. 05161 Hepatitis B

7.1.9.5. 05160 Hepatitis C

7.1.9.6. 05168 Herpes simplex infection

7.1.9.7. 05169 Epstein-Barr virus infection

7.1.10. 6.10 Infectious diseases: Parasitic

7.1.10.1. 05146 Amoebiasis

7.1.10.2. 05144 Malaria

7.1.10.3. 05145 Toxoplasmosis

7.1.10.4. 05140 Leishmaniasis

7.1.10.5. 05142 Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)

7.1.11. 6.11 Antimicrobial resistance

7.1.11.1. 01501 beta-Lactam resistance

7.1.11.2. 01502 Vancomycin resistance

7.1.11.3. 01503 Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance

7.1.12. 6.12 Antineoplastic resistance

7.1.12.1. 01521 EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance

7.1.12.2. 01524 Platinum drug resistance

7.1.12.3. 01522 Endocrine resistance