Teaching Learning and Development: By Sophie Rutherford

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Teaching Learning and Development: By Sophie Rutherford Door Mind Map: Teaching Learning and Development: By Sophie Rutherford

1. Week 1: Planning for the upcoming school year

1.1. Readings

1.1.1. "Stop Stealing Dreams"

1.1.1.1. Standardization is holding people back

1.1.1.2. Internet and technology is changing things

1.1.1.3. give homework before class, have students come prepared

1.1.1.4. open book all the time

1.1.1.5. teacher as a coach

1.1.2. What is school for?

1.1.2.1. learning is a journey

1.1.2.2. discuss learning objective

1.1.2.3. "intelligent learning"

1.1.2.3.1. pupils make their own choices in learning

1.1.3. Text Chap 1

1.1.3.1. Schwabs equation: someone teaches something to someone else in some setting

1.1.3.2. Annette class grade 1-12

1.1.3.2.1. good planning is important

1.1.3.2.2. access student knowledge at the beginning

1.2. In Class

1.2.1. Flipped classroom

1.2.1.1. class devoted to exercises projects and discussions

1.2.1.2. no single model

1.2.1.3. requires more prep time

1.2.1.4. puts responsibility of learning on the students

1.2.2. Why educational psychology?

1.2.2.1. uses methods from psychology to improve behaviour and teaching practices

1.2.3. Best and worst teacher?

1.2.3.1. Best: Ms. L because she was so funny and engaging in class. She delivered grade 12 English content in an interesting way. She also gave multiple options for assessment that were not simply writing an essay

1.2.3.2. Worst: first year political science instructor was veeerrrrrryyy boring and was not well organized in our lecture. he also made us buy his book as a required reading but we never actually used it in class (still bitter about this)

1.2.4. Be reflective

1.2.4.1. open-minded and willing to try new things

1.2.4.2. asses own teaching and decide if it is effective or needs to be tweeked

1.3. Own Thoughts

1.3.1. learning objective should not just be written down but discussed and reiterated and come up with together

1.3.2. liked the example that said don't tell your students to just copy stuff down but instead discuss the meaning

2. Week 2: Considering Developmental Differences

2.1. Readings

2.1.1. What can Adults learn from kids?

2.1.1.1. maybe irrational thinking can be useful

2.1.1.2. kids don't think about limitations

2.1.1.3. want to turn children into better adults

2.1.2. The power of yet

2.1.2.1. not yet rather than fail

2.1.2.2. running from difficulty is bad

2.1.2.3. students carry need for constant validation

2.1.2.4. praise wisely: praise the process

2.1.3. Text Chap 2

2.1.3.1. Development Principles

2.1.3.1.1. Dev Follows an orderly and logical progression

2.1.3.1.2. Progressive but not always constant rate

2.1.3.1.3. Quantitative and Qualitative changes

2.1.3.1.4. Individuals develop at dif rates

2.1.3.1.5. combo of genetics and environment

2.1.3.2. adolscents have executive cognitive functions

2.2. In Class

2.2.1. Reviewing files of your new students before the school year

2.2.1.1. Good because it prepares you and makes you aware of your children's developmental differences

2.2.1.2. Could be bad because it may give you assumptions about the class that could be wrong, maybe they didn't do well in another class because of the teacher

2.2.2. What to plan?

2.2.2.1. what

2.2.2.2. when

2.2.2.3. how

2.2.3. Instructional practices

2.2.3.1. teacher-centered approach

2.2.3.1.1. teacher determines content and delivers it to the class

2.2.3.2. student-centered approach

2.2.3.2.1. constructivist approach

2.2.3.2.2. teacher allows students to construct their own understanding

2.2.4. Development

2.2.4.1. principles

2.2.4.1.1. gradual process

2.2.4.1.2. some rapid and some slow growth

2.2.4.1.3. individuals develop at different rates

2.2.4.2. higher order executive functioning

2.2.4.2.1. prefrontal cortex takes 20 years to develop

2.3. Own Thoughts

2.3.1. Adora Svitak sounds like she had a privileged life (she got a laptop at 6), probably not gonna look the same for all kids

2.3.2. University economics I was so afraid of getting a bad grade I couldn't focus on the content

2.3.3. ideally I would like to teach highschool students because I feel like I can relate to them easier and that we would have good conversations

3. Week 3: Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

3.1. Readings

3.1.1. Social Constructivist Approach

3.1.1.1. Learning is like a house, building on previous knowledge and always under renovations

3.1.1.2. Collaboration

3.1.1.3. Problem solving

3.1.1.3.1. building higher order thinking skills

3.1.1.3.2. problem based learning

3.1.1.4. Teachers as facilitators

3.1.1.4.1. student centered

3.1.1.4.2. give opportunities for students to create their own meaning

3.1.1.5. Curiosity

3.1.1.5.1. wanting to construct knowledge

3.1.1.6. Education theory

3.1.1.6.1. learning as active not passive

3.2. In Class

3.2.1. Gallery Walk, chance to see other groups work

3.2.2. Cognitive Approach

3.2.2.1. how learning develops in the brain

3.2.2.2. cognitive skills that are learned early are important

3.2.2.3. executive cognitive functioning

3.2.2.3.1. organize

3.2.2.3.2. coordinate

3.2.2.3.3. reflect on their thinking

3.2.2.4. acronymns like BEDMAS

3.2.2.5. Piaget:

3.2.2.5.1. adaptation: our drive to adapt to our surroundings

3.2.2.5.2. stages of development

3.2.3. Behavioural Approach

3.2.3.1. children who ar exhibiting cha;;enging behaviour

3.2.3.2. positive reinforcement

3.2.3.2.1. rewards

3.2.3.3. children as blank slates

3.2.3.4. understand the underlying causes of the behaviour

3.2.3.4.1. don't blame the children

3.2.3.5. negative

3.2.3.5.1. punishments

3.2.3.6. environment

3.2.3.6.1. nature

3.2.3.6.2. nurture

3.2.4. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST

3.2.4.1. worked together with group to make a mind map about this

3.3. Own Thoughts

3.3.1. Gallery walk is a strategy I could use in my own class

3.3.1.1. Gallery walk is too chaotic with too many students

3.3.2. My teaching style most aligns with social constructivist

3.3.2.1. I want to work with the students, together

3.3.3. behaviourist, I believe in positive reinforcement

4. Week 4: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

4.1. Readings

4.1.1. Textbook Chapter 3

4.1.1.1. The Resilient Student

4.1.1.1.1. schools responsible for giving social emotional intervention

4.1.1.1.2. self-esteem

4.1.1.1.3. feelinsg of hope, ownership and personal control

4.1.1.1.4. sense of self worth

4.1.1.2. Dynamic Classroom Management

4.1.1.2.1. Positive Behaviour Support

4.1.1.2.2. Setting up classroom with students and giving explicit expectations with reminder mechanisms

4.1.1.2.3. Students as active managers of their own classroom

4.1.1.3. Three fundamental student needs

4.1.1.3.1. to belong and feel connected

4.1.1.3.2. to have a sense of ownership and feel autonomous

4.1.1.3.3. to feel competent, successful and accomplished

4.1.1.4. 6 Strategies to nurture these needs

4.1.1.4.1. orientation period should promote positive student mindset

4.1.1.4.2. develop realistic expectations

4.1.1.4.3. reinforce responsibility

4.1.1.4.4. provide problem solving opportuniyies

4.1.1.4.5. establish self discipline

4.1.1.4.6. assist students to deal with mistakes and failures

4.1.1.5. Teacher Behaviour that diminish behavioural Problems

4.1.1.5.1. positive feedback

4.1.1.5.2. respond supportively

4.1.1.5.3. use low rate of criticism

4.1.1.5.4. use time efficiently

4.1.2. Myth of the Average

4.1.2.1. making airplane seats to fit the "average person didn't actually fit anyone"

4.1.2.2. our education system is aimed at average

4.1.2.3. we should be aiming to reach the periphery because students are being neglected

4.1.2.4. technology can help us

4.2. In Class

4.2.1. positive classroom environment?

4.2.1.1. Mme A grade 7, we were all very angsty pre teens going through puberty and lots of fights happened in the class but I remember Mme was amazing at talking to us and making us feel like she cared for us, she brought us together and made us feel like a community. She offered support to all students and never yelled

4.2.1.2. Grade 5 was bad classroom environment, I did not have a good experience, they changed our teacher 3 times, we were in a portable outside, lots of fighting and kids acting up in the class

4.2.1.3. hard to learn in a bad classroom environment

4.2.1.4. especially important for students with exceptionalities

4.2.2. effective teachers

4.2.2.1. reach all the class no matter how diverse the learners are

4.2.2.2. good at classroom management

4.2.2.3. effective instructional strategies

4.2.2.4. designs curriculum to make learning easy for the whole class

4.2.2.5. research their strategies

4.2.2.6. collaborative

4.2.3. Resilient Children

4.3. Own Thoughts

4.3.1. Teachers have to be supportive in order for students to be resilient

5. Week 5: Making Instructional Decisions

5.1. Readings/ Videos

5.1.1. "Letting Kids Hack Their Lessons" Zoe Brannigan

5.1.1.1. Universal Design for Learning

5.1.1.1.1. welcoming classroom that emphasizes academic and behavioural success

5.1.1.1.2. determine all essential things to be taught and wbehaviour expectations

5.1.1.1.3. give students clear expectations for learning and feedback about their learning progress and social conduct

5.1.1.2. Structure

5.1.1.2.1. microphone

5.1.1.2.2. smart board

5.1.1.2.3. computers

5.1.1.2.4. groups

5.1.1.3. Differentiated Instruction

5.1.1.3.1. giving kids with different needs the chance to make their own lessons

5.1.2. Textbook

5.1.2.1. Bloom's taxonomy

5.1.2.1.1. Inquiry based: helps teachers design comprehensive curricular tasks

5.1.2.1.2. Problem Based: complete tasks with peers collaboratively

5.1.2.1.3. Project based: create specific educational products

5.1.2.1.4. Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation

5.2. In Class

5.2.1. Motivations to learn

5.2.1.1. feeling like you matter

5.2.1.2. support

5.2.1.3. tasks that are both challenging and meaningful

5.2.1.4. showing their own knowledge

5.2.2. Constructivism

5.2.2.1. social negotiations

5.2.2.2. real world situations

5.2.2.3. ownership of own learning

5.2.3. Bloom's taxonomy

5.2.3.1. Knowledge

5.2.3.2. Comprehension

5.2.3.3. Application

5.2.3.4. Analysis

5.2.3.5. Synthesis

5.2.3.6. Evaluation

5.2.4. Universal Instruction for Design

5.2.4.1. keeping in mind the students that have trouble learning independently

5.2.4.2. trying to be effective for all students

5.3. Own Thoughts

5.3.1. Love universal design for learning class, gives kids chance at creativity and their own sense of autonomy

5.3.2. Never had a UDL class but had teachers who gave us multiple options for acvities and assignments and were open to us making our own assignment as long as it fit expectations

5.3.2.1. would be cool to do this and also teach my own students how to be autonomous and create their own content

5.3.3. Found out I am more active than reflective, more visual than verbal, and more intuitive than sensing, I am both sequential and global

5.3.3.1. I know I am active

5.3.3.2. I learn in groups well and am a people person

5.3.3.3. I am artistic and love looking at art

6. Week 6: Knowing what the students Know

6.1. Readings

6.1.1. Textbook Chap 4

6.1.1.1. diagnostic assessment

6.1.1.1.1. determines what needs to be worked on in the year

6.1.1.1.2. observe work habits

6.1.1.2. teaching, learning, and assessment have a symbiotic relationship

6.1.1.3. Backwards design

6.1.1.3.1. plan how you want to assess first and then decide how you will reach that

6.1.1.3.2. instructional activities that will connect and build understanding

6.1.1.3.3. assessment deliberately measure progress towards curricular goals

6.1.1.3.4. choosing appropriate assessment and knowing their purpose

6.1.1.3.5. TELL STUDENTS EXPECTATION AT THE BEGINNING OF THE LESSON

6.1.2. What is Understanding by Design? Jay McTighe

6.1.2.1. teach and assess for understanding and transfer

6.1.2.1.1. what's worth understanding? the larger transferable concepts and processes

6.1.2.1.2. just because a student knows things doesn't mean they understand it? assess by showing what they've learned, can they transfer the knowledge in their own words?

6.1.2.2. backward design

6.1.2.2.1. we do this when we pla a vacation and when we build a house

6.1.2.2.2. not marching through a textbook

6.1.2.3. rich and effective planning framework, but not simple. think big, start small, and go for an early win

6.1.2.3.1. start with a unit that you love and know well

6.2. In Class

6.2.1. Universal Instruction for Design

6.2.1.1. accessible to all students

6.2.1.2. needs of the lest independent students in mind

6.2.2. Link Assessment to Instruction

6.2.2.1. identify pecific learning objective

6.2.2.2. how will you assess this objective

6.2.2.3. what unit and lesson plans will you teach

6.2.2.4. how will you teach it

6.2.3. understanding

6.2.3.1. can explain concept

6.2.3.2. can apply it

6.2.3.3. can interpret it

6.2.3.4. can empathize with others

6.2.3.5. enduring value beyond the class

6.2.4. Backward Design

6.2.4.1. identify what you want you students to understand (desired result)

6.2.4.1.1. something that will be useful beyond the test date

6.2.4.1.2. valuable skills beyond class in multiple disciplines

6.2.4.1.3. helps prepare students for the next level

6.2.4.2. find a way to assess understanding

6.2.4.2.1. performance task

6.2.4.2.2. criteria referenced assessment

6.2.4.2.3. observance

6.2.4.3. plan instruction

6.2.4.3.1. authentic activities

6.2.4.3.2. ways to differentiate instruction

6.3. Own Thoughts

6.3.1. building understanding is important, i need to remember to always check up on my students and make sure they can explain in their own words what has been taught

6.3.2. negative assessment

6.3.2.1. Mr. A gave me an assignment with a partner and I did all the work of it and got a lower grade than her

6.3.3. positive assessment

6.3.3.1. Ms.L had us write a scene from a movie in shakespearean language, it was so fun and me and my group genuinely enjoyed ourselves

7. Week 7: Individual Differences, Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

7.1. Readings

7.1.1. Ken Robinson "Do Schools Kill Creativity?"TED TALK

7.1.1.1. no idea what's going to happen in the future

7.1.1.2. meant to be educating students for a future we don't understand or know yet

7.1.1.3. creativity should be treated the same as literacy

7.1.1.4. kids will take a chance, they won't care if they are wrong

7.1.1.4.1. we make kids frightened to be wrong

7.1.1.4.2. creativity you have to make mistakes

7.1.1.5. not focussing on art and drama classes as much

7.1.1.6. intelligence is diverse, and dynamic

7.1.2. Textbook Chapter 6

7.1.2.1. Intelligence

7.1.2.1.1. Many different kinds of intelligences

7.1.2.1.2. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences

7.1.2.1.3. Sternberg's triarchic theory

7.1.2.2. Special Education

7.1.2.2.1. specialized instruction based on the proper assessment of children's abilities

7.1.2.2.2. high incidence exceptionalities

7.1.2.2.3. low-incidence exceptionalities

7.1.2.2.4. inclusion

7.1.2.2.5. Individualized Education Program

7.1.2.2.6. ADHD

7.1.2.2.7. Autism

7.1.2.2.8. Gifted and Talented

7.2. In Class

7.2.1. say human first eg student WITH autism not autistic student

7.2.2. support for exceptional individuals

7.2.2.1. trifecta of support: school, system, communities

7.2.2.2. try and understand the whole child

7.2.2.3. use research based tactics to better support the student

7.2.3. Labelling

7.2.3.1. disability:inability to do something

7.2.3.2. handicap: a disadvantage in certain situation

7.2.4. intelligence

7.2.4.1. ability to aquire knowledge

7.2.4.2. problem solving

7.2.4.3. measured

7.2.4.3.1. apptitude tests

7.2.4.3.2. achievement test

7.2.5. physical and cognitive skills are required for students to access curriculum

7.2.5.1. schools and teachers need to support students with exceptionalities to reach the curriculum

7.2.6. Integration

7.2.6.1. system stays the same and the child must change to adapt?

7.2.6.2. system changes to fit the student

7.3. Own Thoughts

7.3.1. I think that inclusion of children with exceptionalities could work in a UDI classroom because it is very go at your own pace and find your own strengths kind of learning environment

7.3.2. I don't have any experience with special education in my classes when I was a child because of french immersion

7.3.2.1. in french immersion they encourage anyone with a learning disability to drop the program

8. Week 8: Sociocultural Considerations

8.1. Readings/ Videos

8.1.1. The Danger of One Story

8.1.1.1. girl raised in Nigeria only wrote stories about white people because that's all she had to read

8.1.1.2. as children we are vulnerable in the face of a story

8.1.2. How Culture Drives Behaviours: Julien S Bourelle

8.1.2.1. people usually confront , conform, complain

8.1.2.2. you should conform so that you can adapt yourself and learn

8.1.2.3. cultural diversity increases problem solving ability

8.1.2.4. politeness is culturally related

8.1.3. Culturally responsive Teaching and Learning

8.1.3.1. print rich environment

8.1.3.2. learning centres

8.1.3.3. colorful

8.1.3.4. multiple libraries

8.1.3.5. technology

8.1.4. Textbook Chapter 7

8.1.4.1. Diverse Learners

8.1.4.1.1. We should purposefully encourage diversity in thr class

8.1.4.1.2. teachers should use knwledge from the social, cultural and language backgrounds of their students

8.1.4.1.3. teachers should be aware of their background and how their cultural frames may be different from their students

8.1.4.1.4. be aware of the embeddes structural conditions that may make educational opportunities harder to achieve for some

8.1.4.1.5. be aware of the family and community normas of students

8.1.4.2. Socio-cultural perspectives

8.1.4.2.1. nature vs nurture debate

8.1.4.2.2. teacher must understand social and cultural values of their students

8.1.4.2.3. critical consciousness

8.1.4.3. stereotype threat

8.1.4.3.1. fear that your behaviour will confirm an existing negative stereotype of your identity group

8.1.4.3.2. it can effect performance at school because it puts a burden on the individual

8.1.4.4. socio-economic status

8.1.4.4.1. an individuals social class based on education, occupation and income

8.1.4.4.2. greatest impact on scholastic achievement

8.1.4.4.3. parenting style may differ

8.1.4.5. Bank's mode of Multicultural Educationl

8.1.4.5.1. Content integration

8.1.4.5.2. an equity pedagogy

8.1.4.5.3. an empowering school culture and social structure

8.1.4.5.4. prejudice reduction

8.1.4.5.5. knowledge construction process

8.2. In Class

8.2.1. Welcome video

8.2.1.1. whole school welcomes new students, shows a strong community and welcoming vibrant school

8.2.2. group activity

8.2.2.1. grou shared ideas on how to integrate cultural diversity into our classroom

8.2.2.1.1. a cultural pitluck, all about me at the beginning of school, etc

8.2.2.2. we talked about how we need to be careful of our onwn prejudoces

8.2.2.3. we need to integrate parents

8.2.3. stereotype airplane exercise

8.2.3.1. stereotypes are not always correct and everyone has their own story to tell

8.3. Own Thoughts

8.3.1. teaching in Korea was hard because of cultural differences

8.3.2. had to make compromises when dealing with other cultures

8.3.3. had to be sensitive to my Korean students and their parents

8.3.4. The culturally responsive classroom reminded me of UDL

9. Week 9: End of the School Year

9.1. Readings

9.1.1. EQAO

9.1.1.1. procedures try to be fair

9.1.1.2. works with serveral advisory comittees, with parents, educators, ect

9.1.1.3. check that they are understandable by students

9.1.1.4. make sure that all tests are taken in the same way

9.1.1.4.1. students with IEPs get accomodation

9.1.1.5. provincial standard is level b

9.1.2. Textbook Chapter 8

9.1.2.1. standardized testing

9.1.2.1.1. achievement tests

9.1.2.1.2. administered to a large group of individuals, making sure everything is the same as it is administered to everyone

9.1.2.1.3. original purpose was to assess effectiveness of instruction

9.1.2.1.4. tests not taken from curriculum teachings

9.1.2.1.5. results are usually reported far to late

9.1.2.1.6. misconceptions

9.1.2.1.7. intended purposes

9.1.2.1.8. future hopes

9.1.2.1.9. 5 Essential elements

9.1.2.2. aptitude test is to test specific abilities in cognitive, social and behaviour, not the same as achievement test

9.1.2.3. prepping students for test

9.1.2.3.1. teach how to read instructions

9.1.2.3.2. tell them to do easy questions first

9.1.2.3.3. check over your test

9.1.2.4. interpreting results

9.1.2.4.1. check that is accurately reflects child

9.1.2.4.2. assess whether teacher needs professional development

9.2. In Class

9.2.1. Standardized Testing Pros and Cons

9.2.1.1. Pros

9.2.1.1.1. not for marks, just to see progress (EQAO)

9.2.1.1.2. tells gov areas of improvement to focus on

9.2.1.1.3. holds schools accountable for their students learning process

9.2.1.1.4. it can help teachers improve themselves because they will know what to focus on and if something isn't working they can improve it

9.2.1.1.5. helps gov compare schools and see which may need extra support

9.2.1.2. Cons

9.2.1.2.1. puts unnecessary stress on kids

9.2.1.2.2. teaching for the test instead of education

9.2.1.2.3. you don't see the results until much later

9.2.1.2.4. not accomodating to different learning styles

9.2.1.2.5. more of an informant to the gov than for student progress

9.2.2. Space Shuttle

9.2.2.1. standard was from back in the roman ages when a chariot had to fit two horses width

9.2.3. Federal vs Provincial Testing

9.2.4. Students with Learning Exceptionalities

9.2.4.1. ministry is concerned with how we deal with kids with learning disabilities

9.2.4.2. IEP students could allow them to have longer time, or use technology, could have someone read math and writing questions

9.2.5. Equal Playing field if kids are in low socio economic school taking the test on a hot day in no airconditioning?

9.3. Own Thoughts

9.3.1. standardized testing is not fair for students with learning exceptionalities

9.3.2. I remember in highschool they put pressure on us to do the literacy test, said if we failled we would not graduate highschool. One of my friends had a learning disability and when they failed they had to do it again the next year and everyone knew they had failed, I feel like this is not fair and humiliating kids unnecessarily