Microbiology by Mind Map: Microbiology
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Microbiology

Bacteria

gram positive

cocci, Aerobic, Staphylococci, General features, facultative anaerobic, clusters, require enriched media, catalase positive, Coagulase positive, Staph. aureus, diseases, brain, liver, kidneys, lung (pneumonia), skin, wound, conjuntivitis, otitis, osteomyelitis, food poisoning, septicemia, virulence factors, mandatory, Coagulase, DNA's, optional, heyaloronedase, protein A, Fibronectin binding protein, Secreted toxins, Cytolytic enzymes, alpha, beta, gamma, delta, Exfoliative toxins, Enterotoxin, A, B, C, D, E, G, Toxic shock syndrom toxin-1, Coagulase negative, General features, opportunistic, Normal flora of the skin & upper resp. tract, Infection associated with IV devises, examples, Staph. Epidermis, Staph saprophyticus, Streptococci, General features, facultative anaerobic, chains, Coagulase negative, require blood, Alpha, Strep. pneumonia, Normal flora of the upper resp. tract, pneumonia, ear infection, conjunctivitis, septicemia, meningitis, Strep. viridance, Normal flora of the nasopharynix, Endocarditic, Catheter-related infections, beta, Group A (Streptococcus pyogenes), Most common cause of infection, skin, wound, ear, vaginal, throat, Membrane proteins A and M, 5 toxins, Erythrogenic, skin rash, Hemolysins, O, S, DNA's, A, B, C, D, Streptokinase, Serum opacity factor (protein M), Group B (streptococcus agalactia), Normal flora of the vagina, neonatal septicemia, meningitis, Group D (Enterococcus), Normal flora of the intestines, urinary tract infection, intra-abdominal infections, endocarditic, septicemia, Gama, Normal flora of the skin and resp. tract, infect only immune compromised, Anaerobic, peptococcus, peptostreptococcus

bacilli, Aerobic, Corynebacteria, General features, facultative anaerobic, Chinese letters arrangement, No spore, no capsule, non motile, all non-pathogenic except one, C. Diphtheria, respiratory, transmitted by droplets, death of pharyngeal epithelial cells, formation of pseudomembrane, respiratory obstruction, systematic infection caused by toxin, cardiac and neural damage, can rarely causes hallucination, coetaneous, caused by direct inculcation of the subcutaneous, leads to non-healing gray ulcer, Listeria, general features, no spore, no capsule, motile with tumbling motility 25c, L. monocytogenes, food born infection (most common), minor food poisoning, colonization of the female vagina, disease in the newborn at labor, Meningitis, septicemia, immune-comromised and elderly, Bacillus, general features, Large bacilli, endospores, soil and water, B. anthracis, On the wool of domestic animals, produces 3 exotoxins, edema factor, lethal factor, protective factor, subcutaneous infection, painless black swollen pustule (malignant), lymph nodes infection and fatel septicemia may occur, respiratory infection, through inhalation of the spores, rapid hemorrhagic lymphadenitis, mortality rate is almost 100%, B. cereus, Food poisoning (especially with dry food), secretes tissue destructive toxin, can cause opportunistic infection with artificial devices, Anaerobic, Clostridia, General features, large blunt ended, spore forming, some are motile, large spreading colonies, C. perfringens, capsulated non-motile, normal flora of the GIT and vagina, Gas gangrene, 12 toxins, alpha toxin causes cell death, endothelial, RBC, WBC, platelet, infection through wounds lead to dimensioned blood supply, DNA's and spreading factor spread the infection to adjacent tissue, toxins can reach the blood and cause multi-organ failure and death, food poisoning, caused by enterotoxin producing C. perfringens, they are heat stable up to one hour at 100c, C. difficile, Minor part of large intestinal flora, causes antibiotic induced diarrhea, produce A and B toxins, causes pseudomembranous colitis, can be life threatening, C. tetani, Racquet shaped with terminal spores, infection through wounds, tetanus toxin (neurotoxin), leads to muscle paralysis, respiratory muscle paralysis leads to death, C. botulinum, botulism neuroparalysis disease, caused by botulinum toxins, sudden death of infants when absorbed by his intestines, infection is most commonly food born, can occur due to infected wounds

gram negative

cocci, Aerobic, Neisseriae, General features, usually form diplococci, intracellular but can grow extracellularly, pili for attachment, capsulated, N. meningitidis, causes meningitis, transmitted by droplets and infect the nasopharynx, infect the blood from the upper respt. tract, N. gonorrhoeae, sexually transmitted, infect:, urethra, vagina, rectum, pharynx, conjunctiva in newborn, sever inflammatory section at infected site, numerous PMNL, thick and creamy urethral discharge, can cause disseminated infection in joints, Moraxella catarrhalis, diplococci, Anaerobic, Veillonella, V. Parvula

bacilli, aerobic, Pseudomonas, General features, Obligate aerobic, motile, grow in wet places and water, require low nutrition, glycocalyx capsule, attach through villi, the most common hospital acquired infection, wide range of infections, wound, respiratory, burn, UTI, eye, ear, septicemia, P. aeruginosa, Fastidious, Haemophilus, General features, Type B causes meningitis in children, Non-hemolytic, pen-point colonies, H. influenzae, pneumonia, otitis media, conjunctivitis, septicemia, H. parainfluenzae, H. ducri, sexually transmitted, chancroids (soft chancre), H. aphrouphilus, Bordetella, General features, Encapsulated, Coccobacilli, B. pertussis, Whooping cough, infect epithelial cells of the nasopharynx, highly contagious, DPT vaccine, B. parapertussis, Legionella, General features, Cylindrical, Difficult to stain by Gram, Gimsa stain is more useful, pen-point colonies, transmitted by wet air or by swimming, survive in macrophages, L. pneumophilla, Legionnaries disease, Pontiac disease, Brucella, very short coccobacilli, pen-point colonies, non-capsulated, can grow in phagocytes, Zoonetic disease, Types, Canis, abortus, Melitensis, Suis, ovis, causes undulating fever, Pasteurella, Francisella, General features, polymorphic coccobacilli, lipid rich capsule, grows in macrophages and other cells, Francisella tularensis, infection through direct contact with animals, ulcers formed on skin, ulceroglandular tularemia, lemphoadenopathy, affected organ depends on site of entry, can invade blood, typhoid tularemia, Enterobacteriaceae, General features, Facultative anaerobic, some have fimbriae or flagella, mainly normal flora of the intestines, Lactose fermenters, Escherichia coli, fimbriae and flagella, normal flora of the GIT, Most common cause of urinary tract infection, Neonatal meningitis, gastroenteritis, Enterotoxigenic EC, interotoxin, watery diarrhea, Enteropathogenic EC, destroy microvilli, diarrhea, most common in infants, Enterohemorrhagic EC, destroy intestinal wall, bloody diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome, Enteroinvasive EC, invade intestinal mucosa, bloddy diarrhea, Non-lactose fermenters, Salmonella, Salmonella Typhi, causes typhoid fever, other salmonella cause food poisoning, Shigella, Bacillary dysentery bloody diarrhea, Vibrio, Vibrio cholera, epidemic cholera, severe watery diarrhea, electrolytes loss, transmitted by direct contact and water, highly motile with polar flagellum, Yersinia, motile with large polar flagellum, Diarrhea, Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Epidemic plague, Y. pestis, other, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, can cause pneumonia, Cirtobacter, Serratia, they cause:, UTI, septicemia, Anaerobic, Bacteroides, General features, the major constituent of normal fecal flora, couse multiple infections, intra-abdominal infection, wound infection, septicemia, deep abscesses, B. fragilis, most common species

other (gram - but doesn't stain), Chlamydia, General features, Obligate intracellular, infect only epithelial cells, grows in cytoplasm forming inclusion bodies, cell wall lack peptidoglycan layer, Depend on the target cell to produce energy, C. tracomatis, ABC, eye infection (trachoma) conjunctivitis, may lead to blindness, D-K, STD, infecting, urethra, cervix, proctitis, salpingitis, endometritis, L1-L3, lymphogranuloma venereum (STD), C. pneumoniae, community acquired interstitial pneumonia, also infect upper resp. tract, laryngitis, bronchiti, linked to atherosclerosis, C. psittaci, Zoonotic disease, caused by inhaling the organism from birds, starts by lower resp. tract and pneumonia, hepatospleenomegaly follows the respiratory symptoms, complication may occur with endocarditic and encephalitis, Spirochetes, general features, long spiral bacteria with filaments, can be aerobic or anaerobic, Treponema pallidum, Syphilis (STD), Three stages, Primary syphilis (hard chancre), Secondary syphilis (red maculopapular rash), Tertiary syphilis, Congenital syphilis, Endemic syphilis, Borrelia, Lyme disease, Leptospira

Myobacteria

General features, large cylindrical bacteria, Cannot get stained by Gram, sensitive to UV light, stained by Ziel-Neelsen stain

M. Tuberculosis

M. Leprae, Leprosy, from direct contact (patients or animals), deformities of the nose and skin

M. fortutum

M. aviaum

viruses

DNA viruses

Adenoviridiae, Double stranded DNA, Icosahedral viral capsid, infect humans and animals, organs affected, respiratory, gastrointestinal, conjunctiva, attaches through capsular knobs, inters through endocytosis (receptor mediated), viral replication kills the cell, Clinical infections, Acute upper respt. tract infection, febrile, congestion, sore throat, fatigue, Ocular infection, self limiting conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis (corneal opacity), infection either direct or through contaminated towels, Gastrointestinal, usually minor or no symptoms, RARE infections, heart, bladder, pneumonia in AIDS patients

Herpesviridiae, General features, enveloped double stranded DNA, LARGE DNA, Capsid is icosahedral, Tegument contains enzymes, Infection lead to latency, Viral cycle follow the enveloped DNA cycle, alpha, Herpes simplex 1,2, HSV-1, infect the mouth, HSV-2, infect gentile tract and eye, general features, through direct contact with mucosa, vesicles with blood and shallow ulcers, infection then migrates to the nerves, can infect the brain and cause fatal encephalitis, Reactivation of infection, occur in the same primary area of infection, through migration of the virus along the nerve endings, VZV, Primary infection causes varicella (chickenpox), reactivation causes zoster, Transmitted through respiratory droplets to the lymph nodes to the blood, Secondary multiplication occur in the liver and spleen, Eventually reaches the skin and cause skin vesicles, Reactivation can occur at any part of the body, Infection is usually self limiting in immune competent patients, beta, CMV, enlargement of infected cells, self limiting flu-like disease, 95% of the population is infected, Intrauterine transmission can cause sever infection, Infect epithelial cells then spread through the blood, Low grade hepatitis can also occur, Infection is life threatening in pos-renal and bone marrow transplant patients, HHV-6, HHV-7, gama, EBV, 95% of population are positive for EBV IgG, proliferation and polyclonal activation of B cells and non-specific antibody production, Infectious mononucleosis, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatitis with atypical monocytosis, Malignancies, Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, B cell lymphoma in immunocompromised patients

Hepadnaviridiae, enveloped partly, circle double stranded DNA partly, the short strand is half the negative long one, Icosahedra capsid, DNA encode, DNA capside antigen, envelop antigen, reverse transcriptase, non-structural regulatory protein X, Hepatitis B virus, parenteral transmission, blood, sexual, intrauterine, Liver damage due to immunological reaction

RNA viruses

Orthomyxoviridae (flu), General features, Negative strand, 8 segments, spherical enveloped, 2 spikes proteins, Haemagglutinin, used to attach to cell membrane, enters through receptor mediated endocytosis, Neuraminidase, M protein underlay the viral lipid membrane, replication occur in the nucleus, 3 groups A,B,C, only A and B infect humans, A, 14H, 9N, Influenza, infection through resp. droplets, restricted in the resp. tract, symptoms, high grade fever, chills, muscle pain, damage to resp. epithelial cells

Paramyxoviridae (measles and mumps), general features, ss negative, spherical enveloped, NH protein, F protein, Helical nucleocapsid, Mumps, respiratory infection, 30% subclinical, infects parotid salivary glands and enlarges it, can escape to other parts of the body, pancreas, CNS, testis, Measles

Flaviviridae

Retroviridea (HIV)

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