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How does the infrastructure support the flow of data around an organisation?
Who uses / depends on that data throughout the execution of a business process?
How valuable is the data?
Data is passed between individuals, departments, processes.
The IT infrastructure enables the flow of data.
Data in, data out.
Simplify a process.
Streamline a process.
Enable a process to happen.
Not the beginning or end of a process.
Where are we at risk of failure in terms of business at risk?
How great would the impact be on business objectives?
How does the infrastructure support the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability (CIA) of our information?
1770s:, mechanization, factories, and canals, flow of water
1830s:, steam engines, coal, and iron railways, flow of steam
1870s:, steel and heavy engineering, telegraphy, refrigeration, flow of electricity
1910s:, oil, mass production, and the automobile, flow of oil, petrol
now:, IT, flow of information / data
see Relationship Types for more information ...
see Relationship Rules for more information ...
see Laws of Digital Dynamics® for more information ...
What is it?, Business Process owner(s), e.g. Project Manager, Business Analyst, Sales, Marketing department, London, Warsaw ...
3 Categories of Owner, Personnel, Location, Organizational Unit
Can be mapped directly to:, in UML language ..., UML Actor (with custom stereotype), in Archimate language ..., Archimate Business Actor, Archimate Business Role
What is it?, Processes or functions used by the owner(s), e.g. Order processing, Payment approval ...
Can be mapped directly to:, in UML language ..., entire UML Activity diagram, entire UML Sequence diagram, entire UML Interaction Occurrence diagram, entire UML Communication diagram, in BPMN language ..., entire BPMN diagram, in Archimate language ..., Archimate Business process, Archimate Business collaboration
What is it?, Application, or a collection / suite of applications, e.g. Oracla DB, IBM DB2, Liferay Portal, JBoss Portal, MS Sharepoint, MS Office 2013, MS Outlook, Adobe Reader, WinRAR ...
Can be mapped directly to:, in UML language ..., UML Component (with custom stereotype), UML Node with Execution Environment stereotype, in Archimate language ..., Archimate Application Component, Application Collaboration Component
What is it?, Operating systems (classic / bare metal or virtualized), e.g. IBM AIX, IBM z/OS, IBM PowerVM, Oracle Solaris, RedHat Linux, VMware ESXi, Windows Server, Windows 8 ...
Can be mapped directly to:, in UML language ..., UML Component (with custom stereotype), UML Node with Execution Environment stereotype, in Archimate language ..., Archimate System Software
What is it?, Computer hardware, e.g. Sun Blade 6000, SunFire X2200, IBM x3560, Dell Workstation ...
Can be mapped directly to:, in UML language ..., UML Node with Execution Environment stereotype, UML Node (with custom stereotype), in Archimate language ..., Archimate Node, Archimate Device
What is it?, Computer network hardware and logical network configurations, e.g. Switches, Routers, Multiplexers, Bridges, Hubs, VPN, DMZ ...
Can be mapped directly to:, in UML language ..., UML Node (with custom stereotype), UML Component (with custom stereotype), in Archimate language ..., Archimate Node, Archimate Device
Each element represents an asset (logical or physical) or a resource.
Illustrated as a rectangle or square.
Size depends on relationships.
Positioning depends on relationships.
Same elements are used on B&IT and DAV diagrams.
Each element has it’s standard color., see OBASHI® Colour Standards for more information ...
No one element type can be connected to every other type.
No element can connect outside of its adjacent layer.
Elements of the same type can be connected together – create hierarchical structures.
The Ownership Layer contains elements representing the person(s) or group(s) that ‘owns’, or is responsible for, business processes portrayed in the Business Layer., Ownership elements can be positioned beneath other ownership elements to create a hierarchy of owners.
The Business Layer contains elements representing the business processes or functions that are being used by the ‘Owner(s)’., These elements are positioned under their appropriate ‘Owner’.
The Application Layer contains elements representing software applications., These are positioned beneath the business processes that utilise them.
The System Layer contains elements representing the operating systems on which the applications run., These elements are positioned beneath the appropriate applications.
The Hardware Layer contains elements representing the computer hardware on which the operating systems run., These elements are positioned beneath the appropriate operating systems.
The Infrastructure Layer contains elements representing the network infrastructure into which the hardware is connected., Infrastructure elements can be positioned beneath other infrastructure elements to create a hierarchy that supports the business.
Business & IT Diagram (B&IT), What is it?, A B&IT diagram is a diagrammatic representation of the logical and physical relationships (connectivity) between an organisation’s IT assets and resources and the business operations which they support., 6 layered model, showing how the people, processes and technology of a business interact, Layers logically divided on 2 groups:, How business works (top 2 layers), IT assets supporting business (bottom 4 layers), Layers are used to create B&IT diagrams., Easy for understanding for non technical people.
Dataflow Analysis View (DAV), What is it?, OBASHI® Dataflow Analysis View (DAV) is a graphical and statistical document that illustrates a subset of elements, in a pre-defined sequence, from one or more B&IT diagrams.”, 6 layered model, illustrates how IT systems support the flow of data / information within and between business processes., Model, analyse, value and report on all the data flows that underpin your business, across multiple B&IT diagrams., Facilitates same layers from B&IT diagrams., Provides clear visualization of data / information Suppliers and Providers., In comparison to B&IT diagrams, DAVs adds so called: Additional contextual information:, 3 types, Financial, Statistical, Reference data, Contextual information can be placed:, Within each element., On each connection., Contextual information is optional., Same OBASHI® Layers are used to create DAV diagrams as in B&IT., Same as B&IT diagram, easy for understanding for non technical people., DAVs allows you to extract full value from the data appended to your elements in your B&IT diagrams. (requires software - Control Centre)., DAVs enables cost / value statistics to be generated to understand the contribution IT assets make to the business. (requires software for automation)., Analysis of the DAV can highlight vulnerabilities, mis-alignment and areas for consolidation.
Each diagram uses the same 6 types of elements.
Often DAV diagrams have exactly the same layers and elements only to show contextual information not displayed on B&IT diagrams.
BLACK LINE - standard color.
Explicitly connected to show a bi-directional coupling.
Signify ONLY data paths., Does NOT necessarily signify that data is exchanged bi-directionally between the elements.
Straight lines, horizontal and / or vertical. or right angled connections.
No limit on number of connections., Multiple connections between two elements.
An element can be connected to any number of other elements - in accordance with the OBASHI® relationship rules., Can be used for showing eg. resilent networks., Can be used for identifying SPOFs - Single Point of Failure.
Not restricted by layer., Line may follow any path.
RED ARROW - standard color.
Explicitly connected uni-directionally to show how one element is dependent on another.
An element can have one or more dependencies / dependent(s).
No limit on number of dependencies.
An implicit relationship which exists between all elements within a particular layer.
Two or more elements within the same layer have an implicit relationship (see Relationship Rule 2), know as a Layer relationship
Two or more elements within the same set have an explicit relationship, known as a set relationship.
Explicit logical groups of elements, that exist without regard to their position on a B&IT diagram.
Any element can be assigned to a Set., No restriction on the number of Sets to which an element can be assigned.
There are no formal rules governing Sets, Any element can be placed within sets., Any element can exists in multiple sets.
An explicit relationship denoted by a list of elements in which adjoining elements in the list have a connection relationship or dependency relationship - i.e. a string of connected elements.
Sequential relationships are used within OBASHI® to model data flows.
A list of elements, the order of which forms a sequence.
Sequences therefore consist of chains of connected or dependent elements or sequences.
An implicit relationship which is formed between elements which are placed above or below each other.
Geographical positioning relative one to another.
if an element is placed directly above or below another element there is an implied relationship between them.
There are many classifications of Spatial relationships which are derived from how an element is positioned in relation to another on a B&IT diagram.
Spatial Rules, There are many classifications of Spatial relationships which are derived from how an element is positioned in relation to another on a B&IT diagram.
Relationship Persistence, Relationships on one B&IT hold true across all B&IT diagrams whether shown or not.
Impact Rules, Impact rules determine how impact would cascade through the OBASHI®model.
Dependencies v Connections
see AgilePM® mind map
see PMBOK®5 mind map
1. Scope, Objectives, Create a set of management products to enable the project to be set up and approved. The Project Brief defines key outcome and the Project Approach defines the methods of working., Steps, not defined
2. Capture, Objectives, Source and validate the information that represents the people, process and technology in each of the OBASHI® layers., Steps, Step 1 - Identify Information Sources., Step 2 - Evaluate Scope Against the Information Sources., Step 3 - Plan Workshops., Step 4 - Prepare Questionnaires., Step 5 - Manage Communications., Step 6 - Ensure Security Clearance., Step 7 - Perform Interviews., Step 8 - Hold Workshops., Step 9 - Extract Information., Step 10 - Link to Data Sources.
3. Design, Objectives, Analyze and model the information gathered during the Capture phase., Steps, Step 1 - Create a B&IT diagram., Step 2 - Add Elements (by manual drawing or using a software tool / application)., Step 3 - Review Element Positioning., Step 4 - Connect Elements., Step 5 - Relate Dependent Elements., Step 6 - Add Holds and Notes for Information that is Outstanding., Step 7 - Create Dataflow Analysis Views (DAVs).
4. Refine, Objectives, Prepare the OBASHI® model, and all the B&IT diagrams and DAVs associated with the project, for approval and sign-off., Steps, Step 1 - Review B&ITs., Step 2 - Review DAVs., Step 3 - Update B&ITs., Step 4 - Review Registers (with authorized personnel only)., Step 5 - Approve Sign-off on Revision No. 1 and Issue for Comment.
5. Handover, Objectives, Close out the OBASHI® project and transfer the OBASHI® knowledge and documentation over to operational environment. Master documents should slot into the existing critical document processes to be controlled and managed in a similar way to other business critical documents., Steps, Step 1 - Prepare Planned Closure.
R: 213 G: 183 B: 225
R: 232 G: 214 B: 227
R: 255 G:176 B: 183
R: 196 G: 216 B: 229
Hardware, #eeea9d, R: 238 G: 200 B: 46
Hardware - Server, #ffc82e, R: 255 G: 216 B: 229
R: 171 G: 222 B: 190
The most important, key position on OBASHI® preparing for Foundation exam.
Practitioner, ... under development, currently not available
OBASHI® Explained, http://www.apmg-international.com/nmsruntime/saveasdialog.aspx?lID=3369&sID=7765
How a business works.
How a business is supported by IT assets.
The assets that make it work.
The interdependencies between the assets.
How data flows around the business.
How critical IT is for business.
How failure of IT asset can bring down service delivery.
A ‘Common Language’ for technical and non-technical people.
OBASHI® it's not "one size fits all".
"OBASHI® - Methodology, standard, notation and technology in one."
Framework, see OBASHI® Layers (aka. OBASHI® framework) for more information ...
Diagrams, see OBASHI® Diagrams for more information ...
Control Centre (software)