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NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY in a nutshell by Mind Map: NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY in a nutshell

1. Half-life

1.1. it is the time it takes for one half of a sample to decay

1.1.1. Carbon-14 = 5,730 years

1.1.2. Cobalt-60 = 5.3 years

1.1.3. Iodine-131 = 8 days

1.1.4. Technitium-99m = 6 hours

1.2. Uses of an Element's Half-Life

1.2.1. Organ and X-Ray Imaging

1.2.2. Archaeological Dating

1.2.3. Geological Dating

1.2.4. Cancer Therapy

2. Processes

2.1. Radioactive Decay

2.1.1. the process by which an unstable radioactive nucleus emits radiation forming a nucleus of new composition alpha decay beta decay postiron emission gamma emission

2.2. Nuclear Fusion

2.2.1. occurs when two light nuclei join together to form a larger nucleus

2.3. Nuclear Fission

2.3.1. it is the splitting apart of a heavy nucleus into lighter nuclei and neutrons

3. Radioactive Isotopes

3.1. These are elements that spontaneously emits energy to form a more stable nucleus; such elements are unstable

3.2. Also called radioisotopes

4. Nuclear Radiation

4.1. the energy particles or rays that are given off from a radioactive element, such as uranium, as it decays

4.2. Types of Radiation

4.2.1. Alpha Particle is a high energy particle that contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons

4.2.2. Beta Particle is a high energy electron that is formed when a neutron is converted to a proton and an electron

4.2.3. Positron also called antiparticle of a beta particle since their charges are different but their masses are the same

4.2.4. Gamma Rays are high energy radiation released from a radioactive nucleus which have no mass or charge

5. Radioactivity

5.1. is the nuclear radiation emitted by a radioactive isotope of the known isotopes

5.2. Detecting and Measuring Radioactivity

5.2.1. a small portable device called "Geiger Counter" is used for measuring radioactivity

5.2.2. the amount of radioactivity in a sample is measured by the following units: number of nuclei that decay per unit time - disintegrations per second. Curie (Ci) Becquerel (Bq)