Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Educational Inequality Chapter 9

1.1. Functionalists

1.1.1. schooling will produce unequal results but it is because of the individual not the group

1.1.2. the system doesn't necessarily provide unequal opportunity

1.2. conflict theorist

1.2.1. they believe that schooling is there to reproduce inequality

1.2.2. based on family background

1.2.3. don't believe equal opportunity is a sufficient goal

1.3. School-Centered Explanations

1.3.1. School financing

1.3.1.1. public schools are financed by state and local taxes and property tax

1.3.1.2. in a more affluent area there is higher property tax than in a lower income area

1.3.2. School Research

1.3.2.1. effective school literature

1.3.2.1.1. high expectations for students and teachers

1.3.2.1.2. strong and effective leadership

1.3.2.1.3. accountability for students and teachers

1.3.2.1.4. monitoring learning

1.3.2.1.5. students and teachers spend a great deal of time learning and teaching respectively

1.3.2.1.6. flexibility and the ability to adapt in new situations

1.3.3. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices

1.3.3.1. working class area schools

1.3.3.1.1. teacher directed pedagogic practice

1.3.3.1.2. vocational or social efficiency curriculum

1.3.3.2. middle class area schools

1.3.3.2.1. more student centered practice

1.3.3.2.2. humanistic liberal arts college prep curriculum

1.3.3.3. Upper class students

1.3.3.3.1. usually attend private schools

1.3.3.3.2. authoritarian pedagogic practices

1.3.3.3.3. classical-humanistic college prep curriculum

1.3.4. Curriculum and ability grouping

1.3.4.1. students are separated in groups that match their test scores, ability and sometimes their race, class, and/or gender

1.3.4.2. curriculum is tailored to the ability group to help them succeed; but also singles out underperforms

2. Politics of Education Chapter 2

2.1. 4 Purposes of Education

2.1.1. Intellectual

2.1.1.1. teach basic skills; reading, writing and mathematics & help create a higher order of thinking within analysis, evaluation and synthesis

2.1.2. Political

2.1.2.1. teach children the basic laws of society, help assimilate diverse cultural groups, prepare citizen in political order

2.1.3. Social

2.1.3.1. solve socialization problems and collaboration

2.1.4. Economic

2.1.4.1. prepare students for later occupational roles

2.2. Role of the school

2.2.1. Conservative Persepctive

2.2.2. Liberal Perspective

2.2.3. Radical perspective

2.3. Explanations of Unequal performance

2.4. Definiton of educational problems

3. History of U.S. Education Chapter 3

3.1. Education for Women and Blacks is a reform that pioneered equality for all, especially after the Civil War

3.2. Brown v Topeka Board of Education paved way for integration not only within schools, but also within communities. I think it had a huge influence on education because of is a sense of progress. progress is necessary in order to survive and thrive and segregation was imperative for equality (although as a whole we are still striving for equality in all aspects of life).

4. Sociological Perspectives Chapter 4

4.1. Functionalism

4.1.1. creates structures, programs, and curriculum that are advanced, rational and encourage social unity

4.2. Conflict Theory

4.2.1. Dominant groups will impose will on subordinate groups through force, cooptation and/or manipulation. glue of society is economic, political, cultural, and militaristic

4.3. Interactionalism

4.3.1. examine the microsociological aspects of life at school ie. why are students placed in gifted classes or are labeled learning disabled & what consequences does it have

4.4. Effects of School

4.4.1. Knowledge

4.4.1.1. the more education a person receives, the more liberal a view of the world and also are more involved in political affairs

4.4.2. Attitude

4.4.2.1. with more education, individuals sense of well being and self esteem is usually higher

4.4.3. Employment

4.4.3.1. individuals that pursue higher education will have greater employment opportunities than those who do not

4.4.4. Education

4.4.4.1. although education will grant more opportunities, many believe the type of education affects upward mobility ie public v private schools

4.4.5. Mobility

4.4.5.1. being educated can create an upward mobility within social and economic status

5. Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

5.1. Pragmatism

5.1.1. Key researchers: George Sanders Pierce, William James, John Dewy, Frances Bacon, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau

5.1.2. Problem -- speculative thought -- action -- results

5.1.3. Children are active and organic beings and education should reflect stages of development; schools should represent a community to build a more democratic way of life

5.1.4. Philosophy of education: education made a conscious attempt to balance the social role of school with its effect on the social, intellectual, and personal development of individuals

5.1.5. The teachers roles is to observe, offer suggestions and plan and implement courses of stydy

5.1.6. Methods of instruction: problem solving or inquiry method-- start with the basis of inquiry and posing questions and then go from there

5.1.7. Curriculum: Integrated curriculum that combines all different types of the core to create an answer

6. Schools as Organizations Chapter 6

6.1. Federal for Madison City

6.1.1. Senators: Richard Shelby and Jeff Sessions

6.1.2. House of Rep: Mo Brooks

6.2. State For Madison City

6.2.1. Senate: Arthur Orr and Bill Holtzclaw

6.2.2. House of Rep: Mike Ball and Matt McCutcheon

6.3. State Superintendent

6.3.1. Currently under interview; the interim Superintendent is Ed Richardson

6.4. Local Superintendent

6.4.1. Robby Parker

6.5. Local School Board

6.5.1. Ms. Ranae Bartlett

6.5.2. Mrs. Connie Cox Spears

6.5.3. Mr. Luis Javier Ferrer

6.5.4. Mr. Tim Holtcamp

6.5.5. Mr. David Hergenroeder

6.6. School Processes

6.6.1. Schools are in constant tension

6.6.1.1. teachers and school board members often struggle with pay, productivity and professional standards

6.7. School Cultures

6.7.1. School is described as "despotisms in a state of perilous equilibrium" aka it's authority structure is vulnerable

6.7.2. School is a social organism

6.7.3. In order to create change within the social structure and school's cultures we have to

6.7.3.1. create conflict (democratic conflict)

6.7.3.2. Learn new behavior

6.7.3.3. build teams and make shared decisions

6.7.3.4. believe that the process and content are correlated and require them to work together

7. The Transmission of Knowledge Chapter 7

7.1. the developmentalist curriculum relates to the needs and interests within the student rather than the needs and interests to society

7.1.1. It is extremely prominent within the TEP programs in most schools

7.1.2. it relates school to life experiences and make education more meaningful to the student

7.2. Transformative teaching

7.2.1. multidimensional theory of teaching

7.2.2. a mixture of lecture and questioning within lesson

7.2.3. education begins with active participation of students and results in growth

7.3. Didactic methods

7.3.1. relies on lecture or presentation as main form of communication

7.3.2. rational sequencing and assessment

7.3.3. emphasizes measurable goals

8. Equal Opportunity Chapter 8

8.1. Class

8.1.1. school is expensive and the longer they stay in school the more it costs the student and their family

8.1.2. the number of books within a child's home also is linked to perceived intelligence; middle and upper class tend to have more books in the home, so they are perceived to have a greater intelligence than working class due to their use of "Standard English" that comes with reading.

8.1.3. school enrollment is also a factor, so if the school has mostly middle or upper class there is a greater emphasis of achievement

8.2. Race

8.2.1. 5.2% of Caucasians drop out of school

8.2.2. 7.4% of African Americans drop out of school

8.2.3. 17.6% of hispanic students are likely to drop of school

8.2.4. Black and Hispanic students score, on average, lower on the SAT

8.2.5. Black and Hispanic students do not receive equal opportunities as White or Asian students

8.3. Gender

8.3.1. Although women are rated better students then men, they receive less education generally

8.3.2. Men receive preferential treatment to women

8.4. Coleman Study responses

8.4.1. In the first response, many people had differing opinions on the difference between private and public schools

8.4.1.1. Many made the argument that private schools better serve the poorer community and provides a better education and greater expectation for them rather than public school

8.4.1.2. Catholic schools for example, advantage low income minority students however the trend is moving toward an elite and suburban style of schooling

8.4.2. In the Second Response the racial and socioeconomic background is the driving factor of achievement

8.4.2.1. it doesn't matter if it is a public or private school, it is the segregation and socioeconomic status of the area and the students that provides achievement

8.4.2.2. school and school programs play an important role in relieving these inequalities

9. Educational Reform Chapter 10

9.1. Privatization

9.1.1. private education companies became increasingly involved in public education

9.1.2. Philadelphia Public Schools were taken over by the state of Philadelphia and hired for- profit companies such as Edison and universities like Penn and Temple to manage schools

9.1.3. it is too early to see the effects of these for-profit companies taking over but the overall success has been mixed

9.2. Teacher Education

9.2.1. an overhaul in TEP across the US was created due to

9.2.1.1. lack of rigor and intellectual demands

9.2.1.2. need to attract and attain competent teachers

9.2.1.3. reorganization of the programs at a baccalaureate and post-baccalaureate level

9.2.2. out of this emerged Teach for America and New Teacher Project which recruits high performing college grads to teach in underperforming areas

9.3. Full Service and Community Schools

9.3.1. attacks education inequity and educates the entire community

9.3.2. schools service as community centers and are open for extended hours

9.3.2.1. hours may be used for adult ed, health clinics, recreation and after school programs

9.3.3. designed to target and improve at-risk neighborhoods

9.4. school finance reforms

9.4.1. schools are underfunded and taxes were implemented to alleviate it (although it did not)

9.4.2. supplemental programs were introduced like kindergarten, preschool, social services, security, after school and summer school

9.4.3. this follows the theory that money follows the children; if you help at-risk areas and their children they may be able to provide and help in the future