My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics Of Education

1.1. Purposes of Education

1.1.1. Intellectual: to teach basic skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics and to help students acquire skills such as analysis, evaluation, and synthesis.

1.1.2. Political: to teach patriotism; to prepare citizens to be political; to help integrate diverse cultural groups into the political society and to teach children the laws of society.

1.1.3. Social: to help solve social problems; to work as an institution, such as the family and the church to ensure social unity and to teach children the roles, behaviors, and values of the society.

1.1.4. Economic: to prepare students for their future jobs.

1.2. Perspectives

1.2.1. The Role of the School

1.2.1.1. Conservatives see the role of the school as providing the necessary training to the most talented and hard-working students in order to benefit them. In addition, conservatives believe that schools socialize students into the roles necessary for society. Finally, they see the school's function as transmitting cultural traditions to the curriculum.

1.2.2. Explanations of Unequal Educational Performance

1.2.2.1. The liberal perspective argues that each student begins school with different life chances and that some begin with more advantages than others. Therefore, society must try to create equal opportunities for disadvantaged students.

1.2.3. Definition of Educational Problems

1.2.3.1. The radical perspective argues that: 1.) The educational system has failed poor people, minorities, and women through unequal policies. 2.) The schools have stifled critical understanding of the problems of American society through a curriculum and teaching practices that promote conformity. 3.) The traditional curriculum is discriminatory. 4.) In general, the educational system promotes inequality of both opportunity and results.

2. History of Education

2.1. Reform Movement

2.1.1. I believe Horace Mann's Common School movement has had the most influence on education. This reform ensured that every child could receive a basic education funded by taxes.

2.2. Interpretations

2.2.1. Democratic-liberals believe that the history of U.S. education involves the progressive evolution, albeit flawed, of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all. Democratic-liberal historians suggest that each period of educational expansion involved the attempts of liberal reformers to expand educational opportunities to larger segments of the population and to reject the conservative view of schools as elite institutions for the meritorious. Democratic-liberals believe that the U.S educational system must continue to move closer to each, without sacrificing one or the other too dramatically.

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. Functionalism: social order is dictated by moral values and are the foundation of society.

3.2. Conflict: social order based on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force, cooperation, and manipulation.

3.3. Internationalism: study of how individuals shape society and are shaped by society through interactions.

3.4. The effects of schooling

3.4.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

3.4.1.1. More years of schooling leads to greater knowledge and social participation.

3.4.2. Teacher Behavior

3.4.2.1. It is important for teachers to be role models for their students and instructional leaders. Teachers set standards for students and influence student self-esteem and sense of efficacy. In a study conducted by Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968), teachers expectations of their students were found to directly influence student achievement.

3.4.3. Inadequate Schools

3.4.3.1. Differences between schools and school systems reinforce existing inequalities. Students who attend suburban schools and private schools have a better educational experience than less fortunate children.

3.4.4. Gender

3.4.4.1. Studies show that men are paid more than women for the same work. Studies also show that by the end of high school, girls have lower self-esteem and lower aspirations than do boys.

3.4.5. De Facto Segregation

3.4.5.1. Racial integration at the school level seems to be beneficial to minority students, and there is no conclusive evidence that majority students are harmed by integration.

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. Alabama Senators: Richard Shelby and Doug Jones

4.2. State board of education: Kay Ivey (President),

4.3. Elements of change: Conflict- is necessary. New behaviors- must be learned. Change requires new relationships and behaviors. Must include building, communication, and trust. Team building- extend to the entire school. Process and content - interrelated.

4.4. House of Representatives: Mo Brooks

4.5. State Superintendent: Michael Sentance

4.6. Local Superintendent: Dr. Matt Akin

4.7. Local School Board: Elisa Ferrel- President, Walker McGinnis- Vice President, Beth Wilder- Third Presiding Officer, Michelle Watkins, and Pam Hill

5. Equality of Opportunity

5.1. Educational Outcomes

5.1.1. Class- There is no doubt that social class impacts students educational experiences. For one, Education is expensive. In some point of a students life, they will need financial support. Furthermore, upper-class and middle-class families are more likely to encourage and expect their child to finish school. On the other hand, working-class and under-class often have lower expectations. Teachers have also been found to think more highly of middle-class and upper-class students than they do of working-class and under-class. These thoughts lead to labeling students.

5.1.2. Race-U.S. society is sadly still stratified by race. Studies from the U.S. Department of Education, and the National Center for Education statistics in 2003 showed that out of 16-24 year-old, 5.2 percent of white students are likely to drop out of school and 9.3 percent of African-American and 17.6 percent of Hispanic-American students are likely to drop out of school. Studies show that minorities have lower SAT Scores than white students.

5.1.3. Gender- Studies show that females are less likely to drop out of school than males and are more likely to a have a higher level of reading proficiency than males. Studies show that males are more likely to score higher on the SAT's than females. (Persell, Catsambis, and Cooksoon, 1992)

5.2. Coleman Study Responses

5.2.1. 1) Borman and Dowlin's response was that where an individual goes to school is often related to her race and socioeconomic background but the racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has greater effect on student achievement than an individuals race or class.

5.2.2. 2) Alexander and Pallas (1983) said that the differences that do exist between public and Catholic schools are statistically significant, but in significant differences in learning, the results are negligible.

6. Educational Reform

6.1. School Based Reforms

6.1.1. 1) Charter Schools are public schools that are free from many of the regulations applied to traditional public schools and are held accountable for student performance. Charter schools are self-governing institutions where they control their own curriculum, instruction, staffing, etc. It is said that charter schools provide a more effective and efficient alternative for low-income children.

6.1.2. 2) In 1994, former President Bill Clinton signed the School-to-Work Opportunity Act of 1994. The law provided money to states to develop school-to-work systems. The school-to-work program was designed to prepare young students for high-wage, and high-skill careers of today's economy.

6.2. Political Based Reforms

6.2.1. 1) No Child Left Behind Act is a law that provides money to help low income children educationally, in return for improvements in their academic progress.

6.2.2. 2) In 2009, President Obama established the Race to the Top Fund. The goal was to aid states in meeting the various components of NCLB

7. Curriculum and Pedagogy

7.1. Developmentalist curriculum - rather than the needs of society, this curriculum is related to the needs and interests of the students. The theory came from the aspects of Dewey's writings related to the relationship between the child and the curriculum. It is student centered. It stressed flexibility in what was taught and how it taught. Stressed the importance of relating schooling to the life experiences of each child. The teacher is a facilitator instead of a transmitter.

7.2. Two Dominant Traditions

7.2.1. Mimetic- based on the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students. Best way of doing this, is through the didactic method. Method relies on the lecture or presentation as the main form of communication

7.2.2. Transformative- purpose of education is to change the student in some meaningful way.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Differences Theory

8.1.1. 1) According to anthropologist John Obgu, African-American children do less well in school because they adapt to their "oppressed position in class and caste system". Obgu suggested that school success requires that African-American students deny their own cultural identities and accept the dominant culture of the schools.

8.1.2. 2) Lemann (1991) said that endless cycles of poverty, hopelessness, and despair mark life so some.

8.2. School Centered Explanations

8.2.1. 1) There is a great difference in school financing between districts.

8.2.2. 2) Effective School Research: characteristic that help explain why students achieve academically 1) Climate of high expectations 2) Strong and effective leadership 3) Accountability processes 4) Monitoring of student learning 5) A high degree of time on task 6) Flexibility to experiment and try new things

8.2.3. 3) Within School Differences: (curriculum and ability grouping) Functionalist believe tracking is a valuable tool if it is fair and meritocratic meaning it is based on ability and hard work.

8.2.4. 4) Gender and Schooling: Boys and girls are socialized differently through a variety of ways. 1) Curriculum materials portray men's and women's roles in stereotypical ways. 2) According to Bennett and LeCompte (1990), significant parts of women's history and women's lives are omitted from the curriculum. 3) Hidden curriculum reinforces gender roles through classroom organization, instructional practices, and classroom interactions.

9. Philosophy of Education

9.1. Pragmatism

9.1.1. Key Researchers:

9.1.1.1. George Sanders Peirce (1839-1914), William James (1842-1910), John Dewey (1859-1952)

9.1.2. Goal of Education:

9.1.2.1. Dewey believed the role of the school was to integrate children into a democratic society. He believed that if schools taught democratic and cooperative values to children, that they would be prepared as adults. Dewey also believed the primary role of education was growth.

9.1.3. Role of the Teacher

9.1.3.1. The teacher, in a progressive setting, is known as the facilitator. The teacher encourages students, and helps plan and implement the course of study.

9.1.4. Method of Instruction

9.1.4.1. Dewey believed that children should learn by asking questions about what they want to know. Today, the method is know as the problem-solving or inquiry method. Formal instruction was no longer used.

9.1.5. Notions

9.1.5.1. John Dewey believed that education should be student centered. He believed that children were active, organic beings, always growing, and so they require a course study that reflects the stage of development they are in.

9.1.6. Curriculum

9.1.6.1. Progressive schools follow a integrated curriculum. Progressive educators support working from what is known to what is unknown.