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Assessments by Mind Map: Assessments

1. summative: evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark.

1.1. Advantages: 1. Offers students a target (end goal) for their study efforts. 2. Used as a guide for assessing student capability/knowledge in a subject. 3. Convenient. 4. Can be implemented quickly. 5. Can be easily adapted for specific classrooms/students.

1.2. Disadvantages: 1. Measures relatively superficial knowledge or learning. 2. Vulnerable to student theft and distribution. 3. Results may not be easily generalized beyond the program or institution. 4. no feedback to students as the module is over by exam time

1.3. Purpose: To check level of student learning at the end of instruction on a given set of concepts/ideas/learning criteria.

1.4. "Of" or "for" learning: Summative assessments are designed to be an assessment of learning.

1.5. Example: End of unit exam and essay.

2. performance-based: Assessments that are complex, authentic, process/product-oriented, open-ended, and time-bound.

2.1. Advantages: 1. Can be used to assess from multiple perspectives 2. • Can be used to assess transfer of skills and integration of content 3. Can promote student creativity 4. Can place faculty more in a mentor role than as judge 5. Can provide an avenue for student self-assessment and reflection

2.2. Disadvantages: 1. Usually the most costly approach 2. Time consuming and labor intensive to design and execute for faculty and students 3. Must be carefully designed if used to document obtainment of student learning outcomes 4. Grade can be more subjective

2.3. Purpose: To give students an opportunity to demonstrate knowledge and skills in a process that often requires the transfer of other skills and content knowledge.

2.4. "Of" or "for" learning: PBA can serve both. They can be purposefully designed to assess learning or advance learning. Usually there is a component of each.

2.5. Example: 1. • Oral presentations 2. Products 3. • Supervised internships & practicums

3. high-stakes: Any test used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts, most commonly for the purpose of accountability

3.1. Advantages: 1. Are scored objectively. 2. Provide for external validity. 3. Provide reference group measures.

3.2. Disadvantages: 1. Measures relatively superficial knowledge or learning. 2. Unlikely to match the specific goals and objectives of a program/institution 3. More summative than formative (may be difficult to isolate what changes are needed).

3.3. Purpose: Keep students, educators, and institutions accountable to goals/ standards.

3.4. "Of" or "for" learning: These tests are used as a measure of learning.

3.5. Example: 1. ACT 2. MAP testing

3.5.1. Example:

4. authentic: A form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills -- Jon Mueller (Life is one big authentic assessment).

4.1. Advantages: 1. Tests can be relevant 2. Can assess for real life skills (including many soft skills not necessarily taught in the course.

4.2. Disadvantages: 1. Time consuming 2. Difficult to design and monitor 3. Grade may be more subjective

4.3. Purpose: To give students a relevant way to prove knowledge and skill acquisition.

4.4. "Of" or "for" learning: Meant to be a test of learning and for learning. Likely, many small lessons will be learned along the way.

4.5. Example: My philosophy student use new concepts and skills to engage other philosophy students in debate online.

5. peer assessment: A process whereby students or their peers grade assignments or tests based on a teacher's benchmarks.

5.1. Advantages: 1. Agreed marking criteria means there can be little confusion about assignment outcomes and expectations. 2. Encourages student involvement and responsibility. 3. Focuses on the development of student’s judgment skills.

5.2. Disadvantages: 1. Additional briefing time can increase a teacher's workload. 2. Students will have a tendency to award everyone the same mark. 3. Students may feel ill equipped to undertake the assessment.

5.3. Purpose: 1. increase student responsibility and autonomy 2. involve students in critical reflection 3. develop in students a better understanding of their own subjectivity and judgement.

5.4. "Of" or "for" learning: Peer assessments can have a strong component of "for" learning in that students can learn content from evaluating other students work.

5.5. Example: A teacher provides a rubric for a short story and has students grade another student's short story using the rubric.

6. formative: Including diagnostic testing, is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures conducted by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment.

6.1. Advantages: 1. Assess where students are at along the learning journey 2. Student can evaluate their progress 3. Teacher can adjust curriculum/content based on formative evaluations

6.2. Disadvantages: 1. Takes up valuable lesson time 2. Teachers may not be trained on how to manage results 3. Students may not take low-stakes tests very seriously

6.3. Purpose: To gauge learning progress along the learning journey before the end of unit when it is too late to reteach, etc.

6.4. "Of" or "for" learning: Formative assessments may be used for both learning and a test for learning. However, given their specific purpose, usually a formative assessment is used as a gauge "of" learning.

6.5. Example: A Google wrap-up that asks student a question that will expose their level of understanding in an area or w/ a certain concept.

7. Citations/Credits

7.1. University, C. M. (n.d.). Eberly Center. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from Formative vs Summative Assessment - Eberly Center - Carnegie Mellon University

7.2. Morningside College, Assessment Handbook Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Assessment Methods (, March 2006)

7.3. Feargal Murphy. (2009). Module Design & Enhancement.

7.4. M. (2011, January 13). The Formative Classroom. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from The Formative Classroom

7.5. E. (2017, February 14). Real-Time Assessment: Providing a Window Into Student Learning. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from