Ashlee's Foundations of Education Mind Map

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Ashlee's Foundations of Education Mind Map by Mind Map: Ashlee's Foundations of Education Mind Map

1. Politics of Education - Chapter 2

1.1. Q1: The Four Purposes of Education

1.1.1. The Intellectual Purpose

1.1.1.1. This purpose includes teaching main subjects like literature, sciences, mathematics, and problem solving skills.

1.1.2. The Political Purpose

1.1.2.1. This purpose includes teaching students the basics of laws, citizenship responsibility, and patriotism.

1.1.3. The Social Purpose

1.1.3.1. This purpose includes providing experiences to socialize students and teach them societal values.

1.1.4. The Economic Purpose

1.1.4.1. This purpose is to ensure students are prepared for the work environment.

1.2. Q2: Perspectives

1.2.1. Role of the School

1.2.1.1. The liberal perspective of the role of the school can be described by focusing on educating and socializing students based upon individual and societal needs.

1.2.2. Explanations of Unequal Performance

1.2.2.1. The conservative perspective accredits unequal performance to the individuals lack of effort. The idea that if enough hard work is out in, the student/s will succeed.

1.2.3. Definition of Education Problems

1.2.3.1. The radical perspective defines education problems as overall inequalty based upon "classist, sexist, and racist policies."

2. History of U.S. Education - Chapter 3

2.1. Q1: Influential Education Reform Movement

2.1.1. The Age Reform: This reform movement took place between 1820 and 1860. It was the beginning of the landslide of education during the time of the industrial revolution and westward expansion. This reform normalized public education and also made it possible for women and African-Americans to receive schooling.

2.2. Q2: Historical Interpretation of U.S. Education

2.2.1. The Democratic-Liberal School: This historical interpretation is based upon a constantly changing and improving. Lawrence Cremin sided with this theory. These historians believe that while the U.S. Educational History is flawed, it is important to focus on becoming better.

3. The Sociology of Education - Chapter 4

3.1. Q1: Theoretical Perspectives

3.1.1. Functionalism

3.1.1.1. Education is a part of the societal machine that is highly dependent on other parts as well. Every part has a function.

3.1.2. Conflict Theory

3.1.2.1. In the conflict theory, education is a struggle between subordinate and dominant groups (ex. students and teachers, teachers and administrators) promoting success.

3.1.3. Interactionalism

3.1.3.1. This perspective showcases the "big picture" and analyzes the little pieces that fit together to create problems in society and education.

3.2. Q2: 5 Effects of Schooling

3.2.1. Employment: The effect that describes how students with a higher earned education have better opportunity of employment.

3.2.2. Teacher Behavior: Teachers are not only instructional unit, but also influences for students.

3.2.3. Peer Groups and Alienation: The culture of schools have major effects on students such as labeling, bullying, and violence.

3.2.4. De Facto Segregation: The topic of racial inequalities and segregation issues that form bias effects within education.

3.2.5. Gender: This covers the differences in maturity, self-esteem and responsibilities given to each based on gender.

4. The Philosophy of Education - Chapter Five

4.1. Student Centered Philosophy of Education (Pragmatism) uses the involvement of outcomes on the validity of the solutions. Rousseau puts emphasis on environment and experience. Dewey is explained to be more focused on progressive education and including the concepts of instumentalism and experimentalism.

4.1.1. Dewey's Generic Notations include embryonic community where children learn traditionally and experimentally. He says that educators must focus on the needs of the students and their organic development.

4.1.2. I think the key researchers found within these topics are John Dewey, John Locke, and Jean-Jaques Russeau.

4.1.3. The Pragmatic approach to the goal of education begins with a "conjoint, communicated experience" that integrates students into a democratic society and promote growth.

4.1.4. The Role of the Teacher is a non-authoritarian figure who facilitates learning in the classroom and implements curriculum.

4.1.5. Abandoning formal instruction, Dewey proposed that Methods of Instruction should include learning in groups and individually.

4.1.6. Pragmatism Curriculum includes a core curriculum that is constantly changing and focused on current problems and social changes.

5. Schools as Organizations - Chapter 6

5.1. Q1: Stakeholders in My District

5.1.1. Senators: Doug Jones, Richard Shelby House Representative: Mo Brooks Alabama State Senator: Arthur Orr Alabama House Representative: Terri Collins

5.1.2. State Superintendent: Micheal Sentance School Board Rep.: Billy Rhodes Superintendent: Micheal Douglas Decatur City School Board: Karen Duke, Donnie Lane, Peggy Baggett, Dwight Jett, Michelle Grey King, Melanie Maples

5.2. Q2: Elements of Change

5.2.1. 1. Conflict is necessary because through the journey of changing school processes and cultures, there will be disagreements and old issues will surface.

5.2.2. 2. New Behaviors are also imperative to influence the betterment of communication, leadership, collaborative instruction, and conflict resolution.

5.2.3. 3. Team Building spreads across the school as teachers, students, and administrators work together to introduce and employ the changes made.

5.2.4. 4. Interrelated Process and Content, by integrating these two aspects, the change will be viewed more holistically than if process or content were altered independently.

6. Curriculum & Pedagogy - Chapter 7

6.1. Q1: The Developmentalist Curriculum Theory as explained by John Dewey, is focused on the need of the student in relation to the curriculum, as opposed to societal needs in the case of other theories. This flexible and progressive model relates the curriculum and instruction to the child's need and creates an environment where students can flourish because they can pursue learning by their interest at their personal speed.

6.2. Q2: Dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. Mimetic Tradition is simply the method of lecturing and testing a student population. It uses measurable goals in order to transmit the knowledge from teacher to student.

6.2.2. The Transformative Tradition, in comparison, views teaching as more of an experience that changes the students on more levels than gaining knowledge. This tradition can include many teaching and learning concepts other than the traditional lecture method.

7. Equality of Opportunity - Chapter 8

7.1. Q1: Impact on Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Class is related to educational outcomes because according to the writers in this chapter people are known to follow their own class. Once The goal is met the students to not strive for higher because they believe they cannot overcome class structure.

7.1.2. The book refers to the association between race and educational outcome undeniable. It can be related to cultural expectations as well as the fact that minorities may not receive the same educational opportunities.

7.1.3. Gender and educational outcomes are also closely related. Women are thought to be better students then men. But data shows that women are less likely to attend college than men. Men can also receive preferential treatment in the same idea as race.

7.2. Q2: Coleman Study Responses

7.2.1. The first response was to reexamine and debate the data found in the Coleman Study.

7.2.2. The second response was to act upon the data influence a difference within schools effected.

8. Educational Inequality - Chapter 9

8.1. Q1: Cultural Differences Theories

8.1.1. John Ogbu argues that African-American children do worse in school because they assume and carry on the oppressed attitude that their ancestors carry. He supports the 'burden of acting white' theory from earlier assignments.

8.1.2. Another theory is that non-white and working class students are protesting the dominant culture of schools. Hurn agrees with this version of cultural differences theory but also says it leads to problems and dysfunction.

8.2. Q2: School-Centered Explanations for Educational Inequality

8.2.1. School Financing is one school-centered inequality that is easily noticed between county and city school systems. the authors explain that the budgets for schools are unfair and that it is unequal as well.

8.2.2. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices between schools can promote an unfair advantage if some schools recruit a similar variety of teachers. If teachers work with the idea of "this is how its always done" they can fall behind in academic progress.

8.2.3. Curriculum and ability grouping within schools is a problem because by grouping children based upon ability the lower groups will never meet the higher groups and there is risk of effecting student morale.

8.2.4. Fourth, The gender differences within schools pose a problem with school-centered inequality. The caring orientation and moral reasoning in women is argued to be fundamentally different to the disposition of men, in turn creating issues.

9. Educational Reform - Chapter 10

9.1. School Reforms

9.1.1. School based reforms include changes such as school choice, charter schools, and tuition vouchers. These were put into place to produce better schools but ultimately failed in most cases.

9.1.2. School-to-work programs were put in place to have children ready to work after graduating high school. These programs spread widely when introduced but have become a second option in the eyes of parents. They are beginning to regain popularity.

9.2. Reform Impact on Education

9.2.1. Political reform impact on education has caused a wide effect. Federal legislation such as No Child Left Behind, Race to the Top, Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act have all effected education and the function of schools.

9.2.2. Community reform and influence on schools has also produced many changes such as the Harlem Children's Zone that supports positivity and healthy habits in young children growing up in Harlem, NY.