Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Ch.2 Politics of Education

1.1. Three Questions to Answer. Intellectual

1.1.1. The Role of a School: The advancement of student knowledge and education

1.1.2. Explanation of Unequal Performance: Individual talents for different fields and unique thought processes and needs

1.1.3. Definition of Educational Problems: lack of resource and outside interference in student education by individuals who do not know what is needed

1.2. Four Purposes of Education

1.2.1. 1. Social: Study and understanding of social problems and conflicts.

1.2.2. 2. Intellectual: Academic studies and training for the purpose of mental training and preparation for the future and higher order thought.

1.2.3. 3. Economic: The purposes and training of individuals for trades and occupations.

1.2.4. 4. Political: The processes, effects and purposes of democracy and patriotism.

2. Ch.3 History of US Education

2.1. Reform movement: The Rise of the Common School. The rise of the common school is the origin of the public school system, This reform formed the basis of all reforms that followed due to them building on them, after all if we didn't have public school, we would never have had integrated schools either.

2.2. Historical Interpretation of U.S. Education : Conservative Perspective: A simplified definition of the Conservative perspective is that

3. Ch. 4 Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical perspectives

3.1.1. Functionalism: Functionalism views society as a great machine, with the people as parts and cogs in it. It sees consensus as all parts moving easily and functioning properly, and conflict as parts of the machine breaking down and no longer functioning. To the functionalist, the school is like a shop where the pieces are made for different purpose.

3.1.2. Conflict theory: Conflict theory says that society is held together by power: cultural, economic, political, and military. Society is ruled and defined by the few with power and that schools are like battlegrounds, training our children for social war. The students struggle against the teachers, their peers, the administrators, and so on. Conflict theory shows the schools to be a combination of battlefield, and constant competition, with everyone struggling for their spot at the top.

3.1.3. Interactionalism: Unlike the other two main theories, interactionalism does not focus on the 'big picture' rather, it focuses on the interactions between individuals. it focuses on the things that normally go unnoticed, the interactions between the students and their peers. Interactionalism also focuses on how their backgrounds affect their language, and how that in turn affects their time in school.

3.2. 5 Effects on schooling

3.2.1. 1: Student Peer Groups and Alienation. I believe this has a major effect on students because This is how they learn to socialize. It is in these groups that they learn how to maneuver through life and the various social problems that come with it.

3.2.2. 2: Teacher Behavior. The effect of teacher expectation on a student, either motivating them to succeed, or encouraging their failure

3.2.3. 3: Education and Inequality. how social class affect student perception of the world and changes their values and priorities

3.2.4. 4: Knowledge and Attitudes. the more and individual is educated and the more thorough their education, the more intellectually inclined they become; the more intellectually inclined a student is, the more likely they are to work for more education

3.2.5. 5: Employment. courses of study where the eventual reward of high paying jobs are those who typically have Individuals willing to work harder for the prize

4. Ch. 5 Philosophy of Education

4.1. Philosphy: Essentialism

4.1.1. notions: Studying the world and ideas of the past for yourself and confirming them

4.1.2. key researchers: Key rearchers of this theory include John Locke, Francis Bacon, Alfred Whitehead, and Bertrand Russell

4.1.3. goal of education: help individuals understand and apply the methods and mentality of science to solving problems In the world

4.1.4. role of teacher: enable students to learn objective methods of evaluating art, math and history

4.1.5. method of instruction: Preferred methods of instruction for those who adhere to this theory are lectures, and question and answer

4.1.6. curriculum: The 'core' subjects such as, science, math, writing and humanities

5. Ch. 6 Schools as Orgonizations

5.1. major stake holders

5.1.1. federal level

5.1.1.1. Secretary of Education: Betsy DeVos

5.1.1.2. Senators: Richard Shelby, Doug Jones

5.1.1.3. House Representatives: Bradley Byrne, Matha Roby, Mike Rogers, Robert Aderholt, Mo Brooks, Gary Palmer, Terri Sewell

5.1.2. state level

5.1.2.1. State superintendent: Dr. Thomas R. Bice

5.1.3. Local; school Board of Education:

5.1.3.1. 1. Allbright, Heath Holly Pond High, Holly Pond Middle, Holly Pond Elementary, Cullman Area Technology Academy

5.1.3.2. 2.Brockman, Kenny Hanceville High, Hanceville Middle, Hanceville Elementary, Welti Elementary

5.1.3.3. 3. Carter, Chris Fairview High, Fairview Middle, Fairview Elementary, Parkside

5.1.3.4. 4. Graves , Mike Vinemont High, Vinemont Middle, Vinemont Elementary, Child Development Center

5.1.3.5. 5. Myrex, Wayne Cold Springs High, Cold Springs Elementary, C.A.R.E.

5.1.3.6. 6. Speegle, Jason Good Hope High, Good Hope Middle, Good Hope Elementary, Good Hope Primary

5.1.3.7. 7. Sullins, Gene West Point High, West Point Middle, West Point Intermediate, West Point Elementary, Harmony

5.1.4. Local; School Superintendent: Dr. Susan Patterson

6. Ch.7 Curriculum and Pedagogy and the transmission of knowledge

6.1. 1. Explain a curriculum theory which you advocate (humanist, social efficiency, developmentalist, or social meliorist).

6.1.1. Theory: Social Meliorism; is the theory that education is a tool for improving society. This theory was funded on the belief that an individuals future was not dependent on things such as race, gender, heredity, wealth, or orientation but was instead, dependent on their ability to learn and improve.

6.2. 2. Identify and describe the two dominant traditions of teaching

6.2.1. 1. Mimetic; The Purpose of Education is to transfer specific knowledge to students.

6.2.2. 2. Transformative; The Purpose of Education is to change the student in some meaningful way.

7. Ch. 8 Equality of Opportunity and Educational Outcomes

7.1. Describe how class, race, and gender each impact educational outcomes.

7.1.1. Class: The upper and middle classes have a different educational experience than the working class, and because of that they have different educational outcomes. The reason they have different educational experiences is because of multiple factors. These factors can be summarized as: The number of books in the home causing the students to speak different versions of English, teacher bias towards upper and middle class students due to them speaking "Proper middle class English" and the wealth and connections of the parents giving the children more educational opportunities than their peers.

7.1.2. Race: Race shares many of the same problems as class, due to how heavily the two are interlined. The problems attributed to race are primarily concerning drop-out rates, and the numbers of individuals who attend post high school education. The drop-out rate for African=Americans and Hispanic Americans are significantly higher than those for White Americans, as are the rates for people attending college. Coincidentally, these rates are higher in the various groups that all have lower SAT scores than the average white students, these scores heavily affect the student ability to go to college.

7.1.3. Gender: Gender has always affected the levels of schooling that one receives. Generally, despite the fact that men generally and historically received more and better education than women, women are the ones who do better in more subjects and have a higher population attending school.

7.2. What were the two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982?

7.2.1. 1. Acknowledgement of the fact that Catholic schools do seem better at educating low income families, than public schools are. However, The Catholic schools are becoming more and more like the public schools so it remains to be seen if they will remain better.

7.2.2. 2. Agreement that while the social and economic backgrounds of the students have an effect on their education; the background for the school they attend has a far greater impact on the educational success.

8. Ch.9 Educational Inequality

8.1. Explain at least two types of cultural differences theory (page 424-427)

8.1.1. 1.Ogbu’s macro sociological theory. The reason for working class African-American students not doing as well as middle class white students. His theory says that the working class culture has to be suppressed in order to “fit” in the mold favored by the schools. This causes students to suffer both the “burden of acting white” and having to deal with the possibility of them not being given the jobs and opportunities they are do, because of their race.

8.1.2. 2. Bernstein’s theory. His theory states that working class citizens have a different language and communication code, which leaves them at a disadvantage in schools which are designed for the white middle class. He further states that the cultural and class differences themselves are a by-product of the unequal school system rewarding the middle class.

8.2. Describe at least four school-centered (not student-centered) explanations for educational inequality.

8.2.1. 1. School Financing. I Summary, Public Schools are primarily funded through Various taxes, Especially the property tax. This tax gets schools additional funding based on the value of the area the school is in, because of this, schools in area with more value receive more funding which can be then spent on improving the school or on the students. While some states are changing this in order to increase inter-school equality, it is a slow process.

8.2.2. 2. Effective School Research. States that there are several tings necessary for the operation of an effective school. These things include: A climate of high expectation for students by teachers and administrators, strong and effective leadership, accountability processes for students and teachers, monitoring of student learning, flexibility for teachers and administrators to adapt and experiment and a high degree of instructional time spent on task.

8.2.3. 3. Between School Differences: Curriculum and pedagogic practices. This theory states that one of if not the most important reason for disparity amongst student success rates is due to the schools climate. This climate is heavily influenced by the type of school it is and where it is located. The various climates, reflect the schools ability to teach and can be considered a major reason for the disparity between upper and lower class students in the their grades and achievements.

8.2.4. 4. Within School Differences: Curriculum and Ability Grouping. The Ability grouping practice, otherwise known as tracking, is something that has many researchers divided in their opinions of. Ideally, it would separate students into groups that would then cater to the individual students learning speed, while making sure that they all had the same base education. In practice, however there is a large amount of discrimination in effect, making certain students be placed into groups that they do not belong in. Overall, The tracking program is something that no-one can quite agree on, whether or not it needs to be replaced or simply adjusted.

9. Ch. 10 Educational Reform

9.1. Describe two school-based reforms (school-based, school-business partnerships, privatization, school-to-work programs, teacher education or teacher quality)

9.1.1. 1.School based Partnerships. A school Business partnership is in agreement between a specific company and business and under a specific school or the city the school is in. Several notable examples include Mark Zuckerberg and Bill Gates Giving millions of dollars for various schools and programs. Despite all the media coverage of such donations, they have not had any appreciable effect as of yet.

9.1.2. 2. Privatization. Privatization refers to the increasing involvement a private school companies and higher education becoming increasingly involved in public schooling. Such as various companies and colleges taking over management of public schools in certain areas. It is unknown what sort of affect this will have long-term but as of now has had no appreciable effect on education.

9.2. Describe at least two societal, economic, community, or political reforms.

9.2.1. 1.Full Service and Community Schools. Full service in community school is a type of community based to form. The schools focuses on meeting the students and the family‘s educational, physical, philosophical and social needs in a coordinated and collaborative fashion between school and community services. These types of schools with specifically designed it to improve at risk and low reward neighborhoods and provide full-service schools prevent problems and supporters neighborhoods. On the schools provide a multitude of services there is no supporting evidence that these schools affects student Achievement.

9.2.2. 2.School Finance Reforms. The purpose of the various School finance reforms is to ensure all students receive a thorough and efficient education regardless of their family income. Although there are no national level programs for this purpose leave a multitude of state level programs. Many states took it upon themselves to ensure all students receive a thorough and efficient education. Although all of their programs have the ability to help the children by improving schools in low income areas, they cannot do everything themselves. These programs would be accompanied by programs designed to assist in life outside the school itself.