My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Pragmatism: : "What is practical has meaning and value". Key researchers: John Dewey, George Sanders Pierce, William James, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Goal of education: Learning through experience. Role of the teacher: is to encourage people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome. Method of instruction: the scientific method. Curriculum: Humanities, Literature, art, drama, and music.

2. Sociological Perspectives Chapter Four

2.1. Define each of the theoretical perspectives concerning the relationship between school and society: Functionalism: Conflict Theory, and Interactionalism.

2.1.1. Functionalism is the view that society operates as a machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work. Conflict Theory states that social order is not based on collective agreement but on the ability of the dominate group to impose their will on subordinate groups by force. Interactionalism is based on the critiques and extensions of the two previous theories. Functional and conflict theories are abstract, and emphasize structure and process at a general level of analysis (the big picture).

2.2. Identify and describe 5 effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students as explained in the book (121-128).

2.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes: The higher the social class of a student the higher level of educational achievement. Employment: More education results in better jobs and opportunities. Teacher Behavior: Teacher expectations directly influence student achievement. Inadequate Schools: Affluent schools provide better social mobility than poorer schools. Gender Biases: Schools are still perpetuating gender inequalities.

3. Philosophy of Education Chapter Five

4. Schools as Organizations Chapter Six

4.1. Identify major stakeholders in YOUR district by name (Federal Alabama senators and House of Representative, state senator and house of representative, state superintendent, representative on state school board, local superintendent, and all members on local school board).

4.1.1. Federal U.S Senators: Doug Jones and Richard Shelby; State Representatives: Cory Harbison and Randall Shedd;State Senator: Paul Bussman; Local Superintendent: Shane Barnett; Local School board members: Wayne Myrex, Chris Carter, Jason Speegle, Kenny Brockman, Heath Albright, Mike Graves, and Gene Sullins.

4.2. Notes

4.2.1. Identify and describe the elements of change within 1). School processes and 2.)School cultures. Curriculum v/s social goals of students; structure v/s teaching; communities are in conflict with administration. Conflict is a necessary part of change; new behaviors must be learned; Team building must expand to all parts; process and content are interrelated.

4.2.2. The accountability Education act of 2013 signed by Gov Robert Bentley- If your child attends as school which is failing you can take your state allotment and send your child to a private school

4.2.3. John Goodlad, "A Place Called School"

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy Chapter Seven

5.1. Notes

5.1.1. Sociology of the curriculum Society influences the curriculum Formal curriculum – what is cognitively taught (subjects) Informal or Hidden curriculum – taught but not obvious to sight Null curriculum – what is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

5.2. 1. Explain a curriculum theory which you advocate. 2. Identify and describe the two dominant traditions of teaching

5.2.1. 1. Social efficiency curriculum advocates say we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive. 2. Mimetic is conservative and says that there is a basic core of knowledge to be learned by all. Transformative says students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum.

6. Equality of Opportunity Chapter 8

6.1. Describe how class, race, and gender each impact educational outcomes.

6.1.1. Educational achievement is directly related to social class; race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves; gender differences still exist in education.

6.2. What were the two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982?

6.2.1. School organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools. Lower class students should attend school with upper class students to improve educational success.

7. Educational Inequality Chapter 9

7.1. Explain at least two types of cultural differences theory

7.1.1. African American students do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class and caste structure. Working class and non-white students resist the dominant culture of the schools.

7.2. Describe at least four school centered explanations for educational inequality

7.2.1. teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate, and teacher expectations

8. RTT (Obama)

9. NCLB (Bush)

10. Goals 2000 (Clinton)

11. Nation at Risk (Reagan)

12. Brown v/s Board of Education 1954 desegregation

13. Plessy v/s Ferguson 1896 p. 77 Seperate but equal

14. Civil rights movement of 1963 affects everything happening in education today

15. WWII caused women to enter the workforce

16. John Dewey the father of modern education. Progressivism

16.1. Scientific inquiry

17. Industrial revolution caused the need for educated workers. Gap between rich and poor widened.

18. Emma Hart Willard, Troy University, 1821 p68

19. Morrill Act est. land grants in each county and state for public education. (1862) p.68

20. Funding for education comes from sales tax, property tax, and income tax.

21. Teaching to the test to survive, failing schools, charter schools, privatization of schools

22. Chapter Two: Politics of Education

22.1. Identify and describe the four purposes of education.

22.1.1. 1.) Intellectual Purposes- To teach basic skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics; to convey specific knowledge; and to help students learn higher order thinking skills.

22.1.2. 2.) Political purposes- To instill loyalty to the existing political order; to prepare citizens to take part in political democracies; to educate different cultural groups into a common political order; to teach basic laws of society.

22.1.3. 3.) Social purposes- To help solve social problems; to socially unite; and teach children the roles, behaviors, and values of the society in which they live.

22.1.4. 4.) Economic purposes- To prepare students for later employment; and to select and instruct into the division of labor.

22.2. Choose and describe a perspective for each of the following: 1.) the role of the school; 2.) explanations of unequal performance; and 3.) definition of educational problems.

22.2.1. 1.) The liberal perspective on the roll of the school is that children should be socialized into specific roles while simultaneously being taught to respect cultural differences in order to fit into a diverse society.

22.2.2. 2.) Radicals believe unequal performance is a direct result of socioeconomic backgrounds. Students with less money begin school with fewer opportunities, and failure is caused by economics not the education received.

22.2.3. 3.) Conservatives recognize the cause of educational problems are a result of lowering academic standards in response to demands of greater equality; the watering down of American heritage and western civilization to meet the needs of all cultural groups; decline of traditional moral standards in lieu of the belief that every culture's ideas are equally valid; decline of authority as a result of demands for individuality and freedom; and state control causes schools to be ruled by bureaucracy instead of individual need.

23. Chapter Three: History of U.S. Education

23.1. Choose and describe a reform movement that you think has had the most influence on education.

23.1.1. The Civil Rights Movement of 1963 has influenced education the most because it provided equal education for all races.

23.2. Choose and describe one historical interpretation of U.S. Education.

23.2.1. Benjamin Franklin saw education as a means to support trades and the common man.

24. Educational Reform Chapter 10

24.1. Describe two school-based reforms

24.1.1. 1. Charter schools- Public schools that are free from many regulations and in return are held accountable for student performance. 2. School-Business Partnerships- Business assistance and management of schools in return for raised test scores and higher grade promotion rate.

24.2. Describe at least two societal economic, community, or political reforms that impact education

24.2.1. 1. Full service school reform- Focuses on meeting the students' and their families educational, physical, psychological, and social needs in a collaborative fashion between school and community services. 2. Harlem Children's zone- proposes to leave children where they are and implement high quality programs to change them and their neighborhood.