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1. Background

1.1. late 19th century, Paris, France

1.1.1. class systems are still prevalent Story has this setting as a backdrop since it is based on Mme Loisel's dissatisfaction with her place in society

2. Genre

2.1. short story

2.1.1. Narrator omniscient

2.2. Realism

2.3. Literary Fiction

2.4. Parable

3. Characters

3.1. married couple

3.1.1. Monsieur Loisel In love with his wife content with his life self-sacrificing man loyal to his wife

3.1.2. Madame Loisel dreaming of high class life unhappy with her situation

3.2. friends

3.2.1. Mathilde Loisel dreaming of a high class life

3.2.2. Madame Forestier lends the necklace to Mathilde rich and beautiful

4. Place/Settings

4.1. Paris

4.1.1. flat (rue des Martyrs) part 1 - 3

4.1.2. party (Ministry of Education) part 4

4.1.3. garret under the roof part 5

4.1.4. Champs-Elysées part 6

5. Duration of the story

5.1. approximately 10 years

6. Different readings

6.1. can be compared to Cinderella, but the fairytale changes into a nightmare

6.2. a criticism to 19th century society, prisoner to its prejudice and concupiscence

6.3. a person's preoccupation with appearance and materialism is vain

6.4. being honest up front always pays in the long run

7. Story structure

7.1. part 1

7.1.1. Mme Loisel Unfulfilled dreams unhappy

7.1.2. M. Loisel little clerk in the Ministry of Education

7.2. part 2

7.2.1. Invitation to the ball M.Loisel forgets his wishes and gives money to his wife to buy the dress Mme Loisel first unhappy: no good dress gets money from her husband to buy an appropriate dress

7.3. part 3

7.3.1. Borrowing Mrs Forestier's necklace Mme Loisel unhappy since she has no jewels borrows a necklace from her friend; Mme Forestier

7.4. part 4

7.4.1. The ball During Great success of Mme Loisel After Mme Loisel realises that the necklace is lost. A desperate unfruitful search for the necklace

7.5. part 5

7.5.1. Fear of disclosure, consequently Substituting the necklace Buying a copy of the necklace and returning it to the owner without saying anything Getting in debt with the creditors Paying the debts and its consequences no maid moving to a garret under a roof hard work for the couple for various years

7.6. part 6 -

7.6.1. The twist / the ugly truth Meeting with Mme Forestier The necklace lent by Mme Forestier was a fake one worth 500 francs not a real one worth 40 000 francs.

8. Main characteristics

8.1. Use of irony to produce a surprise ending

8.2. narrative text form

8.3. a lot of symbolic meaning

8.3.1. The paste necklace represents the fraudulent nature of Mme. Forestier and the upper class

8.3.2. Both Mathilde and the necklace are pretty on the outside, but common and plain on the inside.

8.3.3. M and Mme Loisel live in rue des Martyrs

9. Nouveau sujet