Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. 2. Politics of Education

1.1. The Four Purposes of Education:

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual-to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics.`

1.1.1.1. 2. Political- to inculcate allegiance to existing political order; to prepare citizens.

1.1.1.1.1. 3. Social- to help solve social problems.

1.2. Perspectives:

1.2.1. 1. The Role of the School- The Conservative Perspective sees the role of the school as providing the necessary educational training to ensure that the most talented and hard-working individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize economic and social productivity.

1.2.1.1. 2. Explanations of Unequal Performance- The Liberal Perspective argues that individual students or groups of students begin school with different life chances and therefore some groups have significantly more advantages than others.

1.2.1.1.1. 3. Definition of Educational Problems- The Radical Perspective argues that the educational system has failed the poor, minorities, and women through classist, racist, sexist and homophobic policies; schools have stifled critical understanding of the problems of American society through a curriculum and teaching practices that promote conformity; the traditional curriculum is classist, racist, sexist, and homophobic and leaves out the cultures, histories, and voices of the oppressed; in general, the educational system promotes inequality of both opportunity and results.

2. 7. Curriculum & Pedagogy

2.1. Explain a curriculum theory which you advocate (humanist, social efficiency, developmentalist, or social meliorist).

2.1.1. I advocate for the developmentalist theory, which is the curriculum that is mostly related to the needs and interests to the students rather than society.

2.2. Identify and describe the two dominant traditions of teaching.

2.2.1. the mimetic tradition: based on the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students. the transformative tradition: believes that the purpose of education is to change the student in a meaningful way.

3. 3. History of U.S Education

3.1. Reform Movement:

3.1.1. 1. The Progressive Movement has the most influence on education because of John Dewey's efforts to create "child-centered" education, and included philosophies of their growth during their development. It was the most "child-centered" reform in education that has their best interest in mind, versus the movements that were not based on children, just education.

3.2. Historical interpretation of U.S. Education.

3.2.1. 1. The Radical-Revisionist School was an interpretation that began in the 1960s, is described as a more "pessimistic" interpretation. It was believed to be expanded to meet the needs of the elites in education. It was challenged by multiple types of people, such as historians, sociologists, and political economists of education. The historians revised the previous history of education into a more critical direction. The historians that looked into this matter agreed that during the 1960s, the expansion of education was only considered/revised by elites.

4. 5. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Describe the particular world view of one of student-centered philosophy of education (pragmatism or existentialism). Include the following information: generic notions, key researchers, goal of education, role of teacher, method of instruction, and curriculum

4.1.1. 1. Pragmatism - It is the philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired ends. This was researched by Francis Bacon, John Locke, John Dewey, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. These researchers came up with ways for each person to think "outside the box" in such a way, where we abandon the traditional way of thinking and think in our own ways, to create our own conclusions. Dewey formed Instrumentalism and Experimentalism within this, and they were founded on the psychology, behaviorism, and the philosophy of pragmatism. The goal of education is that the view of the school was to integrate children into a democratic society, and the role of the teacher means that the teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure. It was decided that students could learn in groups and as individuals and they would learn under a core curriculum or an integrated one.

5. 6. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Identify major stakeholders in YOUR district by name (Federal Alabama senators and House of Representative, state senator and house of representative, state superintendent, representative on state school board, local superintendent, and all members on local school board)

5.1.1. Alabama Senators: Doug Jones and Richard Shelby. House of Representatives: Terri Sewell, Mo Brooks, Martha Roby, Bradley Byrne, Gary Palmer, Robert Aderholt, Michael D. Rogers. State Super: Michael Sentance. Local Super: Dee Dee Jones.

5.2. Identify and describe the elements of change within 1. school processes and 2. school cultures.

5.2.1. 1. School Processes- They go through a great deal on a daily basis with political energy being expended every day, thus keeping school in a state of equilibrium. 2. School Cultures- schools are political organizations in which there are numerous competing interests. Thus, the culture of any one particular school is the product of the political compromises that have been created in order for the school to be viable.

6. 8. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Describe how class, race, and gender each impact educational outcomes.

6.1.1. It's always been these factors that cause controversy in schools. Because not all students come from the same money background, they are not all of the same color, some teachers and mostly students treat other students as the lesser because of these factors. If students are treated this way, they will do horribly in school because they feel no one cares.

6.2. What were the two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982? (There are several but focus on 1982 responses.)

6.2.1. Differences among schools DO make a difference, and differences do exist between public and Catholic schools are statistically significant.

7. 9. Educational Inequality

7.1. Explain at least two types of cultural differences theory (page 424-427)

7.1.1. 1. John Ogbu argued that African American children to less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class and caste structure. 2. Working class and nonwhite students as resisting the dominant culture of the schools.

7.2. Describe at least four school-centered (not student-centered) explanations for educational inequality.

7.2.1. Tracking, gender, dominant groups, families

8. 10. Educational Reform

8.1. Describe two school-based reforms (school-based, school-business partnerships, privatization, school-to-work programs, teacher education or teacher quality)

8.1.1. No Child Left Behind- It represented a logical extension of a standards movement that tossed and the left's critique of U.S. education back on itself. Race to the top-the goal of this is to aid states that are meeting in various components of the NCLB.

8.2.  Describe at least two societal, economic, community, or political reforms that impact education.

8.2.1. Connecting School, Community, and Societal Reform: the research provided information on successful school reforms including: leadership as the driver for change, parent-community ties, professional capacity, student-centered learning climate, and instructional guidance. Also includes five elements that impact education: meaningful learning goals, intelligent, reciprocal accountability systems, equitable and adequate resources, strong professional standards and supports, and schools organized for student and teacher learning.

9. 4. Sociological Perspectives

9.1. Functionalism, Conflict Theory, and Interactionalism:

9.1.1. 1. Functionalism- The researchers of functionalism examine how well the parts are integrated with each other, and they view society as a kind of machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work.

9.1.1.1. 2. Conflict Theory- Not all sociologists of education believe that society is held together by shared values alone, that it is held together by economic, political, cultural and military power. Some sociologists argue that the social order is not based on some collective agreement. Karl Marx analyzed the conflict theory and came to the conclusion that there was a class system.

9.1.1.1.1. 3. Interactionalism- The interactional theories that are based from school and society are more of critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives. The critiques are abstract, and emphasize structure. These theories were attempting to make the commonplace strange.

9.2. 5 effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students

9.2.1. 1. Employment - The fact of looking forward to one's future employment is a large impact to students' schooling. The book states that in 1986, about 54 percent of the 8 million college graduates in the US entered professional and technical jobs.

9.2.1.1. 2. Knowledge and Attitudes - One's knowledge of the education they are being taught and their attitude toward education have a high impact on whether or not they will succeed in their education.

9.2.1.1.1. 3. Teacher Behavior - The way a teacher portrays themselves in class is a major impact on students. Whether they're in a good mood or a bad mood, it will reflect onto the students.