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Assessment by Mind Map: Assessment

1. Summative assessment

1.1. Definition Summative assessment is used to evaluate student’s learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark. (Renard, 2017)

1.1.1. Pros Easy for assigning student grades. As it happens after larger content areas have been completed it is a great way of assessing what the students have learnt. Cons It is very difficult to correct students once they have done the summative assessment, as it happens after the learning. Some students find it hard to express themselves in a "one size fits all" model of summative assessment. It can lead to students being stressed out when they have a lot to study in order to complete these assessments. (Renard, 2017)

1.2. Purpose To assess what a student has learnt from a given content area, through assessing after the content has been delivered.

1.2.1. Example End of unit tests, Final project for a unit, Standardized tests.

1.3. Assessment of learning This might be the simplest way of assessment of learning. Students will do work/take tests after the content has been taught and it will seldom be revisited.

2. Diagnostic

2.1. Definition Diagnostic assessment is a form of pre-assessment that allows a teacher to determine students' individual strengths, weaknesses, knowledge, and skills prior to instruction. It is primarily used to diagnose student difficulties and to guide lesson and curriculum planning. (Brummitt-Yale, 2018)

2.1.1. Pros Allows teachers to plan meaningful and efficient lessons. Being aware of what the students already know will cut back on frustration and boredom for them. It creates a baseline for future learning and to refer to when looking at the students progress. (Brummitt-Yale, 2018) Cons It may lead to the teacher making incorrect inferences about the students ability. One size fits all tests usually are not good indicators of ability. Students may feel that they are being over assessed and lose motivation. (Brummitt-Yale, 2018)

2.2. Purpose To establish what knowledge students already have and to which extent work should be revisited in class, and what should be focused on intensively during teaching.

2.2.1. Example Unit pretests are a great way of understanding what students know and what should be taught intensively. On a smaller scale, entrance cards work well to find out what students may know about a specific lesson.

2.3. Assessment for learning This is probably the best example of assessment for learning, where areas of concern are identified and help is given in the form of teaching. This can be used with entrance cards very successfully so that students are identified immediately if and when they need support.

3. Performance based

3.1. Definition Performance-based assessment measures students' ability to apply the skills and knowledge learned from a unit or units of study. Typically, the task challenges students to use their higher-order thinking skills to create a product or complete a process. (Chun, 2010).

3.1.1. Pros This is a student centered approach that usually engages students fully. Performance based assessments is a great way of assessing multiple perspectives. It is also effective in stimulating deeper understanding, learning and avenues for self-assessment and reflection. (Hilliard, 2015) Cons Often most costly form of assessment. Teachers have to be trained to mark, set out course outlines for the students. Rubrics have to be created for marking and teachers have to collaborate in the design of the course and the methods of assessment. (Hilliard, 2015)

3.2. Purpose The most genuine assessments require students to complete a task that closely mirrors the responsibilities of a professional, e.g., artist, engineer, laboratory technician, financial analyst, or consumer advocate. The have to be: Complex Authentic Process/product-oriented Open-ended Time-bound (Hilliard 2015)

3.2.1. Example Performance based assessments are very similar to Authentic assessments in that students are asked to apply their knowledge to solve a complex problem. PBL therefore could be a performance based assessment as long as the criteria mentioned are met. Essays where students incorporate multiple facets of learning within a unit. (Chun, 2010).

3.3. Assessment of learning This is predominantly an assessment of learning in that students are asked to apply knowledge they already should have. However, it could also be an assessment for learning when its not used in the summative sense, but rather to see where students have shortcomings.

4. Self-assessed

4.1. Definition Self-assessment is a process of formative assessment during which students reflect on and evaluate the quality of their work and their learning, judge the degree to which they reflect explicitly stated goals or criteria, identify strengths and weaknesses in their work, and revise accordingly. (Andrade and Du, 2007).

4.1.1. Pros Focusing on the formative aspects of assessment, students focus more on the process of producing quality work and thus produce better work. Promotes responsibility and independence through self-evaluation and reflection so that students may identify their learning progress and motivate themselves in the process. (Spiller, 2012) Cons Students have to understand that there is a clear rationalle of why and what they are supposed to be self-assessing. Students therefore need to be taught how to self assess, otherwise it would not work. Students also have to feel that they are in a judgment free zone where mistakes are seen as learning opportunities. (Spiller, 2012)

4.2. Purpose To make judgments about the students own learning for the purpose of reflections and and revision which is an integral part of one's own learning. (Spiller, 2012)

4.2.1. Example Students are invited to complete a simple self-assessment sheet according to agreed criteria and submit it with a completed assessment. To extend the benefits of the exercise, students can be asked to explain why they evaluate themselves in particular ways. Students can be awarded a percentage for completing the assessment or graded for the quality of their rationale for their self-assessment. Studies that evaluated the use of a simple self-assessment component like this report a number of benefits. One of the most interesting is the feedback from students that the self-assessment requirement made them return regularly to the criteria as they were working on the assignment and keep checking their own performance against them (Andrade & Du, 2007,p.166).

4.3. Assessment for learning I say this because students are encouraged to look at their own work, compare it to what is expected (rubric/success criteria) and are then encouraged to do more in order to score higher. By making these kinds of reflections students can easily see where their shortcomings are and devise a plan to overcome them.

5. Peer-assessed

5.1. Definition Peer assessment requires students to provide either feedback or grades (or both) to their peers on a product or a performance, based on the criteria of excellence for that product or event which students may have been involved in determining. (Falchikov, 2007)

5.1.1. Pros Peer assessment encourages collaborative learning, which the students could use to "fill the gaps" in their own learning. Students engaging in commentary on peer's work will be better at making intellectual choices and judgment. Students writing will improve as they get multiple perspective which they can draw information from. Feedback is immediate so that the function of formative assessment is enhanced.(Falchikov, 2007 and Spiller, 2012) Cons Takes planning and procedures have to be taught to the students. They have to feel comfortable and a culture of trust and acceptance has to be instilled. Students have to be aware and very comfortable with the success criteria set out by the teacher. (Spiller, 2012) It can be difficult to implement at the start, based on personal experience.

5.2. Purpose Students give each other feedback on the quality of work produced. Students may give a grade in some instances but generally it is done to transfer more responsibility to the students for their own learning. It is effective in "leveling the playing field" between students and teachers in order to diminish the strict hierarchy of the traditional classroom.

5.2.1. Example Students comparing and exchanging notes. Peer marking for writing activities where first and second drafts are marked by peers using a rubric and suggestions are given. Peer feedback during speaking activities has worked well in my classes where students give feedback in the What went well, and Even better if, method. From personal experience)

5.3. Assessment for learning As this is not not normally a grade-giving exercise, it is most definitely assessment for learning. Students find out from their peers what they might do differently to get better grades. In some instances, like the marking of spelling tests, through swap and mark, it could be assessment of learning, but that is not the primary goal of peer assessments.

6. Formative assessment

6.1. Definition It is used to monitor student’s learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instructors or teachers to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning. (Renard, 2017)

6.1.1. Pros Fantastic tool for identifying problem areas for students which can then be addressed by the teacher. It's quick and easy and takes minimal planning. Cons It can be difficult to convert these findings into scores if needed, unless a register is kept with what the students find difficult, and what they do not. Sometimes students might not take it seriously, because it's not an "official assessment".

6.2. Purpose To monitor the study process and to help students before their shortcomings become a serious hindrance.

6.2.1. Example Exit tickets, working walls, one minute essays and class polls.

6.3. Assessment for learning As formative assessment takes place during the study period, with the aim of identifying and then rectifying problem areas for students, it is very much assessment for learning.

7. Portfolio

7.1. Definition "A purposeful collection of student work that exhibits the student’s efforts, progress and achievements in one or more areas. The collection must include student participation in selecting contents, the criteria for selection, the criteria for judging merit and evidence of student self-reflection." (Paulson, Paulson, Meyer 1991) Which is then assessed.

7.1.1. Pros Promotes self reflection. Highlights both strengths and weaknesses. Creates opportunities for weaknesses to become areas of learning. (Morningside college, 2006) Cons Might highlight a student's failures. Students have to be willing partners. Requires planning. (Morningside college, 2006)

7.2. Purpose (1) evaluating coursework quality, learning progress, and academic achievement. (2) determining whether students have met learning standards or other academic requirements for courses, grade-level promotion, and graduation (3) helping students reflect on their academic goals and progress as learners (4) creating a lasting archive of academic work products, accomplishments, and other documentation. ("The glossary of education reform", 2016)

7.2.1. Example Long term notebooks for students, Folders kept in class and updated with documents as needed. Students may actually create their own portfolio in higher grades where they reflect regularly on the work they have done.

7.3. Assessment of and for learning Individual pages/documents in the portfolios are used for assessment of learning. They should also be used for assessment for learning. By looking at the notebooks and noticing trends, a teacher can easily devise teaching strategies for the students in their class.

8. High-stakes

8.1. Definition It's used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts, most commonly for the purpose of accountability—i.e., the attempt by federal, state, or local government agencies and school administrators to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers. ("The glossary of education reform", 2016)

8.1.1. Pros Teachers accountable for learning. Said to motivate students more and establish high expectations. Reveals areas for reform and improvement. The end product is easy to understand data. ("The glossary of education reform", 2016) Cons Teachers may end up teaching to the test and teaching quality may decrease. Has the effect of creating narrower subject coverage. Contributes dramatically to rates of cheating. Exacerbates stereotypes of intelligence and academic ability. ("The glossary of education reform", 2016).

8.2. Purpose Test scores are used to determine punishment, accolades, advancement (grade promotion or graduation) for students.

8.2.1. Example SAT's or any other major assessment that the students have to do in order to get a "test" grade.

8.3. Assessment of learning. In general there is a lot of talk about reform and reteaching students but in general these are the "end of the line scores" for most students. Most of these assessments also take place at the end of term/year.

9. Authentic

9.1. Definition An approach to measure student performance in a direct, relevant way to see if the learning objectives were met. ("Authentic Assessments: Tips and Examples for Educators", 2018)

9.1.1. Pros Using information in a meaningful and creative way. Could be a combination of assessments such as reading, writing and speaking, students a better chance to succeed ultimately. Cons Can get rowdy when students work in groups. Requires good classroom management. Requires quite a bit of planning. (Authentic Assessments: Tips and Examples for Educators, 2018)

9.2. Purpose Attempt to demonstrate what a student actually learns in class rather than the student’s ability to do well on traditional tests and quizzes. ("Authentic Assessments: Tips and Examples for Educators", 2018)

9.2.1. Example PBL is a great example. So projects where students do research and reflect on what they have learnt.

9.3. Assessment of learning You are asking students to apply knowledge you assume they have. If they do not have the knowledge they are going to have a difficult time in class.