Instructional and Assessment Materials in Reading

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Instructional and Assessment Materials in Reading by Mind Map: Instructional and Assessment Materials in Reading

1. Principle 5: Balance humanistic and technological practices.

1.1. Humanistic Strategies

1.1.1. Instructional materials and activities prepared by the teacher. Print media Graphics

1.2. Technological practices

1.2.1. Audio-visual equipment. Integrating technology to instruction. Film clips Slides Video tapes Taped recordings Movies Computer-assisted instruction

2. Classification of Instructional Materials

2.1. Edgar Dale

2.1.1. Cone of Experience Verbal Symbols Visual Symbols Recording, Radio, Still Pictures Motion Pictures Educational Television Exhibits Study Trips Demonstrations Dramatized Experience Contrived Experience Direct, Purposeful Experience

2.2. Robert Heinich

2.2.1. Non-projected Materials Real Objects Models, Globe Printed Materials textbooks workbooks exercises handouts charts graphs organizers test materials Illustrated materials diagrams sketches maps pictures photographs cartoons caricatures Display materials flat display 3-dimensional display Movable materials flannel boarrd magnetic board puppets, marionettes mobiles roll-up theater

2.2.2. Projected Materials overhead projector/transparencies opaque projector slide projector/slides

2.2.3. Audio-assisted Materials radio cassette recorder/cassette tapes laser disk player/LDs and CDs

2.2.4. Video and Films VHS/video tapes Filmstrips/movies

2.2.5. Computer-Assisted Materials Computer-assisted lessons Computer-projected materials

3. Functions of Instructional Materials

3.1. to enlist prior knowledge

3.2. to motivate the learners

3.3. to introduce a new lesson

3.4. to sustain learners' interest

3.5. to make learning pleasurable

3.6. to link up past lesson with new

3.7. to review past lesson

3.8. to concretize abstract concepts

3.9. to clarify or enrich concepts

3.10. to unlock vocabulary

3.11. to provide models/examples

3.12. to organize thinking

3.13. to give directions/guidelines

3.14. to provide background information

3.15. to monitor learning

3.16. to assess learning

3.17. to evaluate performance

3.18. to sustain learners' interest

4. The five E's that an instructional material should have.

4.1. effective

4.2. efficient

4.3. economical

4.4. engaging

4.5. enjoyable

5. Principles of Instructional Materials Design

5.1. Principle 1: Develop units around themes.

5.1.1. Instruction is organized around themes and topics. Theme It is a declarative statement of a point of view or perspective. Topic It is the subject matter.

5.2. Principle 2: Structure and sequence content into meaningful contexts.

5.2.1. It is composed of the major ideas and insights that the students need to understand and gain from the lesson.

5.2.2. A graphic organizer could be used when listing the possible topics and ideas. It is a tool or framework that can be used in presenting information visually. Semantic web KWL Chart Spider Map Venn Diagram Concept Map

5.3. Rowntree cite some ways of sequencing the content.

5.3.1. Random Topics The topics are independent. It would not matter how they are sequenced.

5.3.2. Chronological The topics are discussed in order they happen by following some kind of time order.

5.3.3. Structural Logic The students' knowledge of a topic is a prerequisite in understanding a subsequent topic.

5.4. During reading

5.4.1. Pre-reading

5.5. Principle 3: Use interactive teaching strategies and activities.

5.5.1. Post-reading

5.6. Principle 4: Use informal process-oriented assessment strategies.

5.6.1. Assessments include more informal approaches less reliance on formal conventional tests.

5.6.2. Student-centered

5.6.3. Test scores at times misrepresenting individuals progress in learning.

6. Procedures in Materials Development

6.1. Stages of Materials Development

6.1.1. Planning Deciding on the unit theme. Formulate the unit goals and specific objectives.

6.1.2. Development Production phase Choosing the materials.

6.1.3. Field Tryout The instructional materials go through the potential users. It is needed to determine the following: Time needed to finish the material. Sustainability of learner's involvement and interest. Assess the difficulty of the selections used.

6.1.4. Evaluation Done by the teachers handling the same grade level you are working on.

6.1.5. Revision/Finalization Suggest some changes, deletions, insertions, or expansions to improve the materials.

6.2. Models of Materials Development

6.2.1. The ASSURE Model Analyze your learner State your objectives

6.2.2. The HOPKIN Model Belief Statements Specific Objectives