What factors were responsible for the end of the USSR's control in Eastern Europe?

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What factors were responsible for the end of the USSR's control in Eastern Europe? by Mind Map: What factors were responsible for the end of the USSR's control in Eastern Europe?

1. Reagan

1.1. Reagan said "I was talking about ('evil empire') another time and another era. This was recorded when Reagan in Moscow in May 1988.

1.2. Giving USSR more pressure by increase the Arm Race into the level of space.

1.3. Reagan's character and willingness to engage with Gorbachev was also important.

2. E.Europe Leaders

2.1. A;ll the satellite leaders has been ruling their countries for a long time and they weren't popular.

2.2. There had been reform movements but was crushed but USSR tanks.

2.2.1. However, the strike at the Lenin-shipyard in Gdansk in Poland in 1980 didn't get shut down by Soviets tanks. (Shows a change in attitude since 1968).

2.2.1.1. Banned in 1981, by the Polish government, but it survived. (showing the Communist control is weakening).

3. Economic problems/weakness

3.1. The economic miracle didn't occur as Khrushchev promised. Food and Cloth (basic needs) were becoming a problem for Communist countries.

3.2. Lifestyle Disparity between the West and the East Germany.

4. Gorbachev

4.1. Gorbachev's three policies

4.1.1. Glasnot/opennes (April 1986)

4.1.1.1. Moving away from traditional authoritarianism.

4.1.2. Perestrokia/restructuring (

4.1.2.1. Changing government more like a democracy system.

4.1.3. Demokratizatsiya (1988)

4.1.3.1. Economic reform, allowing some private enterprise.

4.2. Had many meetings with the US Presidents.

4.2.1. In December 1987, during Gorbachev's visit in Washington, he singed a treaty agreeing to remove all their intermediate-range nuclear missiles from Europe (Gorbachev called this thought the 'Zero Option').

4.3. Withdraw forces from Russia's Satellite states. Allowing Satellite States becoming democratic states.

4.3.1. Withdraw troops from Afghanistan in February 1989.

4.3.2. Allowed the reunification of Germany and Germany joining NATO in 1990.

4.3.3. Gorbachev states he won't intervene with the anti-soviet movements in Warsaw Pact countries (October 1989).

4.4. "There could be 'no winners' in a nuclear war (Rogers).

5. Arm Race

5.1. Arm race was raised up to the level of 'Star Wars' by President Reagan in 1983.

5.1.1. USSR couldn't afford to compete in this race, instead, money for public demanding can't be neglect anymore.

5.1.1.1. Agreement was signed between the USSR and USA to end the Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars) and the Cold War.

6. Social: People's power

6.1. People wanted more than just reform in E.Europe. They wanted Freedom and Democracy.

6.1.1. The destruction of the Berlin Wall in November in 1989 was a symbol of the destruction of the Soviet Union.

6.1.2. Anti-Soviet movements begin in Warsaw Pact countries (1989). Gorbachev maintains he will not intervene in (October 1989).