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Parkinson's Disease by Mind Map: Parkinson
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Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson disease, Parkinson's, idiopathic parkinsonism, primary parkinsonism, PD, or paralysis agitans) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease result from the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain; the cause of this cell death is unknown. Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related; these include shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait. Later, cognitive and behavioural problems may arise, with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep and emotional problems. PD is more common in the elderly, with most cases occurring after the age of 50. The main motor symptoms are collectively called parkinsonism, or a "parkinsonian syndrome". Parkinson's disease is often defined as a parkinsonian syndrome that is...

constipations

pharmacological

Placebo effect ?

Side Effects

sleep disorders

drug interactions

L-Dopa, dyskinesia, on/off effects, nausea

psychosis

Abnormal sex behaviour

Oral treatment

Drugs, L-Dopa, loss of efficiacy after some years, Carboxylase Inhibitors, Benserazide, Carbidopa, MAO-B Inhibitors, Anticholinergic, Amantadine, Dopamine Agonists, Combination of several drugs, COMT Inhibitors

Advanced (pump) treatment

Duodopa pump

Apomorphine pen/pump

Treatment of PD (incurable so far)

This is just a demo map that you can delete right away, if you feel like it...

experimental

Stem Cell Therapy

TMS

gene therapy

social

Cyper-Support (Internet support)

Social care and Support

Doctor Patient Relationship

Family Support

Community

Awareness

Health Care Providers, specialist PD Nurses

Charity

Parkinsons' Patient Organisation

Home Care

other

Psychiatric/psychological therapy

physiotherapy

speech/language therapy

sport/physical exercise

diat, Role of natural fruits/ black berries

Faith/Religiousity

education

Babiński's sign absent

How to speed up transition from dishes and animal models to promising Phase I?

Funding

Non profits

Michael J Fox Foundation

Parkinson UK

Public

UK NHS

EU (Framework Programmes)

US NIH

Big Pharmas

Patients

Crowdfunding

National/International funding?

non-motor symptoms

sexual disfunctions

decreased libido

sleeping disorders

unmodulated voice

difficulty swallowing

motor symptoms

akinesy

rigidity

hipertony

loss of balance

choreic movements

diskinesia

movement disorders

fine movement disorders

small steps

tremor

surgical

Deep Brain Stimulation

Surgical Ablation

Epidemiology

2:3 M:F

55-75 years

New node

#2nd neurodegenerative disorder

early onset 21-30(genetic, toxins)

indications that 20% debut before age 40

Etiology

Genetics

Dominant Gene

Recessive Gene

Genetic mutations, SNCA, PARKIN, PINK, DY-1, LRRK2

Infectious

Toxic

Alcholic

Pesticides

MPTP

Copper

Unknown

Mitochondrial Dysfunction

Protein Agreggation

Amyloid

Lewy-Bodies

Drug Induced

Metoclopramide

Rotenone

Imunological

Symptoms

psychology

anxiety

depression

dementia

psychosis

hallucinations

apathy

changes in behaviour, gambling, isolation

disease-related?

drug-induced?

Physiopathology

DOPAMINE DOWN

New node

ACETYLCHOLINE UP

BASAL GANGLIA

SUBSTANTIA NIGRA

Dopamine Pathways

Links with other diseases

Neurodegenerative disease

Parkinson-Altzheimers connections

Parkinson plus diseases, Lewy-Body Dementia, Supranuclear Palsy, Multiple System Atrophy

Secondary Parkinsonism, Wilson's disease, Traumatic, Vascular, Medical induced, anti-psychotics

Social Aspects

Social Isolation

Public perception of disease

Social Burden

Patient Organisation

Parkinson UK

Economic Burden

Stigma

Effect of family

Famous Parkinson patients

Mohamed Ali

Pope Jean Paul II

Michael J.Fox

Hitler

Andy Grove

diagnosis

clinical examination

tendon reflexes

paraclinical examination

EEG

dopamine level measuring

ERPs

genetical testsn

DAT Scans

PET/SPECT scan

Psychology Aspects

Suicide

Deep damage

Fear of the unknown

Isolation

Research

Treatment

New node

New node